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Oral Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)

General Information About Oral Cancer

Oral cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lips, mouth, or throat.

Oral cancer may form in any of three main areas:

  • Lips.
  • Oral cavity, which includes:
    Anatomy of the oral cavity; drawing shows the lip, hard palate, soft palate, retromolar trigone, front two-thirds of the tongue, gingiva, buccal mucosa, and floor of mouth. Also shown are the teeth, uvula, and tonsil.

    Anatomy of the oral cavity. The oral cavity includes the lips, hard palate (the bony front portion of the roof of the mouth), soft palate (the muscular back portion of the roof of the mouth), retromolar trigone (the area behind the wisdom teeth), front two-thirds of the tongue, gingiva (gums), buccal mucosa (the inner lining of the lips and cheeks), and floor of the mouth under the tongue.

  • Oropharynx, which includes:
    • The middle part of the pharynx (throat) behind the mouth.
    • The back third of the tongue.
    • The soft palate (the back, soft part of the roof of the mouth).
    • The side and back walls of the throat.
    • The tonsils.

Most oral cancers start in squamous cells (thin, flat cells) that line the lips, oral cavity, and oropharynx. Cancer that forms in squamous cells is called squamous cell carcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma can form from lesions on the mucous membranes (the lining of the mouth and throat). These lesions include leukoplakia (an abnormal white patch of cells) and erythroplakia (an abnormal red patch of cells).

In Western countries, such as the United States, the most common areas for oral cancer are the tongue and the floor of the mouth.

Oral cancer is more common in men than in women.

Men are more than twice as likely as women to have oral cancer and die from it.

Date last modified: 2014-07-02

Date last modified: 2014-07-02

Date last modified: 2014-07-02

Changes to This Summary (07/02/2014)

The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.

Changes were made to this summary to match those made to the health professional version.

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Date last modified: 2014-07-02

Last updated: 2014-07-16

Source: The National Cancer Institute's Physician Data Query (PDQ®) Cancer Information Summaries (http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq)