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William E.  Russell

William E. Russell, M.D.

Cornelius Vanderbilt Professor of Pediatrics
Professor of Cell & Developmental Biology
Pediatric Endocrinologist

Education
  • M.D. - Harvard University, 1976
  • Fellowship - University of North Carolina Health Care System, 1984
  • Fellowship - Massachusetts General Hospital, 1982
  • Residency - Massachusetts General Hospital, 1979
  • Internship - Massachusetts General Hospital, 1977
 
Research Description

The principal focus of the laboratory is to define the mechansims, both stimulatory and inhibitory, that control the regeneration of liver. The regenerating liver is used as a model in which to study the cellular and molecular mechanisms of growth control in a normal, non-neoplastic tissue. The critical issues to be understood in the process are: which signals sense the acute loss of liver mass and initiate regenerative growth; which signals maintain the differentiated functions of the liver during proliferation, and which signals stop liver growth when it has reached its appropriate mass? We aim to identify the major signals that regulate regeneration, the cells and tissues in which they are generated, and the nature of the cellular and molecular cross-talk that controls them. We study these problems in whole animals, some genetically modified to overexpress or block critical regulatory molecules, and others treated with growth factors or neutralizing antibodies; in primary cultures and lines of hepatocytes and other liver-derived cells; and in subcellular fractions of cells.


A major focus in the lab is the role of EGF-like molecules in liver growth and metabolism.


Although a potent hepatic mitogen, EGF was reported long ago to have actions that both mimic and antagonize those of insulin in the liver. The EGF receptor (EGFr) is one of a family of four related tyrosine kinase receptors: EGFr, ErbB2, ErbB3, and ErbB4. Ligands of these receptors induce hetero- and homodimers and divergent downstream signaling. Adult liver expresses only EGFr and ErbB3, while fetal liver expresses EGFr, ErbB2 and ErbB3. Ligands of both the EGFr (TGFalpha, amphiregulin, epiregulin, betacellulin, and HB-EGF) and ErbB3 (heregulins or neuregulins) are expressed in liver or pancreas. The laboratory is actively investigating the proliferative and metabolic signals generated by this important system.


ErbB2, which can dimerize with either EGFr or ErbB3 is strongly expressed in fetal and neonatal liver, but is extinguished around the time of weaning, suggesting it to be a developmental switch. The model under investigation is that the ErbB receptor family transduces growth and metabolic signals in the liver, and perhaps in other tissues, and that the various ligands and receptors in this family have different actions at different developmental stages. In addition to developmental differences in ErbB receptor expression, there are also striking zonal and circadian differences in their expression, adding to the potential richness and subtlety of ErbB signaling in the liver.


Other areas of active investigation in the laboratory include the role of receptor guanylyl cyclases, the plasminogen activator system, and also of growth inhibitors in the development and regeneration of liver.

Publications
  • Rosenbloom ST, Qi X, Riddle WR, Russell WE, DonLevy SC, Giuse D, Sedman AB, Spooner SA. Implementing pediatric growth charts into an electronic health record system. J Am Med Inform Assoc [print-electronic]. 2006 May; 13(3): 302-8. PMID: 16501182, PMCID: PMC1513651, PII: M1944, DOI: 10.1197/jamia.M1944, ISSN: 1067-5027.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16501182.
  • Romero-Gallo J, Sozmen EG, Chytil A, Russell WE, Whitehead R, Parks WT, Holdren MS, Her MF, Gautam S, Magnuson M, Moses HL, Grady WM. Inactivation of TGF-beta signaling in hepatocytes results in an increased proliferative response after partial hepatectomy. Oncogene. 2005 Apr 4/21/2005; 24(18): 3028-41. PMID: 15735717, PII: 1208475, DOI: 10.1038/sj.onc.1208475, ISSN: 0950-9232.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15735717.
  • Hinkle CL, Sunnarborg SW, Loiselle D, Parker CE, Stevenson M, Russell WE, Lee DC. Selective roles for tumor necrosis factor alpha-converting enzyme/ADAM17 in the shedding of the epidermal growth factor receptor ligand family: the juxtamembrane stalk determines cleavage efficiency. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2004 Jun 6/4/2004; 279(23): 24179-88. PMID: 15066986, PII: M312141200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M312141200, ISSN: 0021-9258.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15066986.
  • Lee DC, Sunnarborg SW, Hinkle CL, Myers TJ, Stevenson MY, Russell WE, Castner BJ, Gerhart MJ, Paxton RJ, Black RA, Chang A, Jackson LF. TACE/ADAM17 processing of EGFR ligands indicates a role as a physiological convertase. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 2003 May; 995: 22-38. PMID: 12814936, ISSN: 0077-8923.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12814936.
  • Carver RS, Stevenson MC, Scheving LA, Russell WE. Diverse expression of ErbB receptor proteins during rat liver development and regeneration. Gastroenterology. 2002 Dec; 123(6): 2017-27. PMID: 12454858, PII: S0016508502004730, DOI: 10.1053/gast.2002.37060, ISSN: 0016-5085.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12454858.
  • Mathew RP, Najjar JL, Lorenz RA, Mayes DE, Russell WE. Premature pubarche in girls is associated with functional adrenal but not ovarian hyperandrogenism. J. Pediatr. 2002 Jul; 141(1): 91-8. PMID: 12091857, PII: S0022-3476(02)00044-6, DOI: 10.1067/mpd.2002.125492, ISSN: 0022-3476.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12091857.
  • Sunnarborg SW, Hinkle CL, Stevenson M, Russell WE, Raska CS, Peschon JJ, Castner BJ, Gerhart MJ, Paxton RJ, Black RA, Lee DC. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha converting enzyme (TACE) regulates epidermal growth factor receptor ligand availability. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2002 Apr 4/12/2002; 277(15): 12838-45. PMID: 11823465, PII: M112050200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M112050200, ISSN: 0021-9258.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11823465.
  • Scheving LA, Stevenson MC, Taylormoore JM, Traxler P, Russell WE. Integral role of the EGF receptor in HGF-mediated hepatocyte proliferation. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2002 Jan 1/11/2002; 290(1): 197-203. PMID: 11779153, PII: S0006291X01961571, DOI: 10.1006/bbrc.2001.6157, ISSN: 0006-291X.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11779153.
  • Scheving LA, Russell WE. Insulin and heregulin-beta1 upregulate guanylyl cyclase C expression in rat hepatocytes: reversal by phosphodiesterase-3 inhibition. Cell. Signal. 2001 Sep; 13(9): 665-72. PMID: 11495724, PII: S0898-6568(01)00179-6, ISSN: 0898-6568.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11495724.
  • NIH Consensus Development Panel. Osteoporosis Prevention, Diagnosis, and Therapy. JAMA. 2001; 285: 785-95.
  • Busse D, Doughty RS, Ramsey TT, Russell WE, Price JO, Flanagan WM, Shawver LK, Arteaga CL. Reversible G(1) arrest induced by inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase requires up-regulation of p27(KIP1) independent of MAPK activity. J. Biol. Chem. 2000 Mar 3/10/2000; 275(10): 6987-95. PMID: 10702262, ISSN: 0021-9258.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10702262.
  • Busse D, Doughty RS, Ramsey TT, Russell WE, Price JO, Flanagan WM, Shawver LK, and Arteaga CL. Reversible G1 arrest induced by inhibition of the EGF receptor tyrosine kinase requires up-regulation of p27KIP1 independent of MAPK activity. J. Biol. Chem. 2000; 275: 6987-95.
  • Mauras N, Attie KM, Reiter EO, Saenger P, Baptista J, and the Genentech, Inc., Cooperative Study Group. High dose recombinant human growth hormone (GH) treatment of GH-deficient patients in puberty increases near-final height: randomized, multicenter trial. J. Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000; 85: 3653-60.
  • Carver RS, Russell WE. A diversity of EGF-like ligands and receptors in liver. Fleig W (ed). Normal and Malignant Liver Cell Growth-Falk Workshop Kluwer Academic Publishers. 1999; 33-46.
  • Roselli HT, Su M, Washington K, Kerins DM, Vaughan DE, Russell WE. Liver regeneration is transiently impaired in urokinase-deficient mice. Am. J. Physiol. 1998 Dec; 275(6 Pt 1): G1472-9. PMID: 9843786, ISSN: 0002-9513.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9843786.
  • Peschon JJ, Slack JL, Reddy P, Stocking KL, Sunnarborg SW, Lee DC, Russell WE, Castner BJ, Johnson RS, Fitzner JN, Boyce RW, Nelson N, Kozlosky CJ, Wolfson MF, Rauch CT, Cerretti DP, Paxton RJ, March CJ, Black RA. An essential role for ectodomain shedding in mammalian development. Science. 1998 Nov 11/13/1998; 282(5392): 1281-4. PMID: 9812885, ISSN: 0036-8075.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9812885.
  • Peschon JJ, Slack JL, Reddy P, Stocking KL, Sunnarborg SW, Lee DC, Russell WE, Castner BJ, Johnson RS, Fitzner JN, Boyce RW, Nelson N, Kozlosky CJ, Wolfson MF, Rauch CT, Cerretti DP, Paxton RJ, March CJ, Black RA. An essential role for ectodomain shedding mammalian development. Science. 1998; 282: 1281-4.
  • Roselli HC, Su M, Washington K, Kerins DM, Vaughan DE, Russell WE. Liver regeneration is delayed in urokinase- deficient mice. Am J Physiol (GI and Liver Physiol 38). 1998; 275: G1472-G1479.
  • Russell WE, Carver RS. The EGF/TGF family of growth factors and their receptors. Strain AJ, andDiehl AM (eds) Liver Growth and Repair: From Basic Science to Clinical Practice. London: Chapman & Hall, Ltd. 1998; 185-218.
  • Carver RS, Mathew PM, Russell WE. Hepatic expression of ErbB3 is repressed by insulin in a pathway sensitive to PI-3 kinase inhibitors. Endocrinology. 1997 Dec; 138(12): 5195-201. PMID: 9389501, DOI: 10.1210/endo.138.12.5601, ISSN: 0013-7227.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9389501.
  • Carver RS, Mathew PM, Russell WE. Hepatic expression of ErbB3 is repressed by insulin in a pathway sensitive to PI-3 kinase inhibitors. Endocrinology. 1997; 138: 5195-201.
  • Scheving LA, Russell WE, Chong KM. Structure, glycosylation, and localization of rat intestinal guanylyl cyclase C: modulation by fasting. Am. J. Physiol. 1996 Dec; 271(6 Pt 1): G959-68. PMID: 8997239, ISSN: 0002-9513.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8997239.
  • Scheving LA, Russell WE. Guanylyl cyclase C is up-regulated by nonparenchymal cells and hepatocytes in regenerating rat liver. Cancer Res. 1996 Nov 11/15/1996; 56(22): 5186-91. PMID: 8912855, ISSN: 0008-5472.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8912855.
  • Berkowitz EA, Seroogy KB, Schroeder JA, Russell WE, Evans EP, Riedel RF, Phillips HK, Harrison CA, Lee DC, Luetteke NC. Characterization of the mouse transforming growth factor alpha gene: its expression during eyelid development and in waved 1 tissues. Cell Growth Differ. 1996 Sep; 7(9): 1271-82. PMID: 8877107, ISSN: 1044-9523.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8877107.
  • Carver RS, Sliwkowski MX, Sitaric S, Russell WE. Insulin regulates heregulin binding and ErbB3 expression in rat hepatocytes. J. Biol. Chem. 1996 Jun 6/7/1996; 271(23): 13491-6. PMID: 8662847, ISSN: 0021-9258.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8662847.
  • Russell WE, Kaufmann WK, Sitaric S, Luetteke NC, Lee DC. Liver regeneration and hepatocarcinogenesis in transforming growth factor-alpha-targeted mice. Mol. Carcinog. 1996 Mar; 15(3): 183-9. PMID: 8597531, PII: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2744(199603)15:3<183::AID-MC4>3.0.CO;2-J, DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2744(199603)15:3<183::AID-MC4>3.0.CO;2-J, ISSN: 0899-1987.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8597531.
  • Berkowitz EA, Seroogy KB, Schroeder JA, Russell WE, Evans EP, Riedel RF, Phillips HK, Harrison CA, Lee DC, Luetteke NC. Characterization of the mouse TGF gene: its expression during eyelid development and in waved-1 tissues. Cell Growth & Diff. 1996; 7: 1271-82.
  • Carver, R. S., Sliwkowski, M. X., Sitaric, S., Russell, W. E. Insulin regulates ErbB3 and heregulin binding in rat hepatocytes. J. Biol. Chem. 1996; 271: 13491-6.
  • Russell, W. E., Kaufmann, W. K., Sitaric, S., Luetteke, N. C., Lee, D. C. Liver regeneration and hepatocarcinogenesis in TGFalpha targeted mice. Molecular. 1996; 15: 183-9.
  • Scheving LA, Russell WE, Chong K-M. Structure, glycosylation and localization of rat intestinal heat-stable enterotoxin receptor/guanylyl cyclase C: Modulation by fasting. Am J Physiol (Gastrointest Liver Physiol 34). 1996; 271.
  • Scheving, L.A., Russell, W.E. Guanylyl cyclase C is up-regulated by nonparenchymal cells and hepatocytes in regenerating rat liver. Cancer Research. 1996; 56: 5186-91.
  • Duddy SK, Earp HS, Russell WE, Smith GJ, Grisham JW. Differential dependence of the tumorigenicity of chemically transformed rat liver epithelial cells on autocrine production of transforming growth factor alpha. Cell Growth Differ. 1995 Mar; 6(3): 251-61. PMID: 7794793, ISSN: 1044-9523.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7794793.
  • Barnard JA, Beauchamp RD, Russell WE, Dubois RN, Coffey RJ. Epidermal growth factor-related peptides and their relevance to gastrointestinal pathophysiology. Gastroenterology. 1995 Feb; 108(2): 564-80. PMID: 7835600, ISSN: 0016-5085.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7835600.
  • Duddy SK, Earp HS, Russell WE, Smith GJ, Grisham JW. Differential dependence of the tumorigenicity of chemically transformed rat liver epithelial cells on autocrine production of transforming growth factor alpha. Cell Growth & Differentiation. 1995; 251-261.
  • Russell WE, Dempsey PJ, Sitaric S, Peck AJ, Coffey RJ. Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF alpha) concentrations increase in regenerating rat liver: evidence for a delayed accumulation of mature TGF alpha. Endocrinology. 1993 Oct; 133(4): 1731-8. PMID: 8404616, DOI: 10.1210/endo.133.4.8404616, ISSN: 0013-7227.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8404616.
  • Russell WE. Protect your assets from future claims. CDS Rev. 1993 May; 86(4): 14-5. PMID: 8187183, ISSN: 0091-1666.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8187183.
  • Russell WE, Dempsey PJ, Sitaric S, Peck AJ, Coffey Jr, RJ. Transforming growth factor- concentrations increase in regenerating rat liver: Evidence for a delayed accumulation of mature TGF-. Endocrinology. 1993; 133: 1731-8.
  • Polk WH, Dempsey PJ, Russell WE, Brown PI, Beauchamp RD, Barnard JA, Coffey RJ. Increased production of transforming growth factor alpha following acute gastric injury. Gastroenterology. 1992 May; 102(5): 1467-74. PMID: 1568557, PII: S0016508592001859, ISSN: 0016-5085.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1568557.
  • Millard WJ, Romano TM, Layden MP, Russell WE, Martin RJ. Growth hormone secretion in the obese male rat: modulation by the gonadal and thyroid axes. Growth Dev Aging. 1991; 55(2): 91-103. PMID: 1682282, ISSN: 1041-1232.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1682282.
  • Millard WJ, Romano TO, Layden MP, Russell WE, Martin RJ. Growth hormone secretion in the obese male rat: Modulation by the gonadal and thyroid axes. Growth Dev & Aging. 1991; 55: 91-103.
  • Donaghue KC, Badger TM, Millard WJ, Frisch LS, Russell WE. Absence of ultradian rhythm or diurnal variation in insulin-like growth factor-I in rats. Neuroendocrinology. 1990 Jul; 52(1): 1-8. PMID: 2118602, ISSN: 0028-3835.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2118602.
  • Cunningham JJ, Lydon MK, Russell WE. Calorie and protein provision for recovery from severe burns in infants and young children. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1990 Apr; 51(4): 553-7. PMID: 2108578, ISSN: 0002-9165.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2108578.
  • Maiter DM, Gabriel SM, Koenig JI, Russell WE, Martin JB. Sexual differentiation of growth hormone feedback effects on hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin. Neuroendocrinology. 1990 Feb; 51(2): 174-80. PMID: 1968235, ISSN: 0028-3835.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1968235.
  • Coffey RJ, Russell WE, Barnard JA. Pharmacokinetics of TGF beta with emphasis on effects in liver and gut. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1990; 593: 285-91. PMID: 2197961, ISSN: 0077-8923.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2197961.
  • Donaghue KC, Badger TO, Millard WJ, Frisch LS, Russell WE. Absence of ultradian rhythm or diurnal variation in insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in rats. Neuroendocrinol. 1990; 52: 1-8.
  • Gabriel SM, Millard WJ, Koenig JI, Badger TM, Russell WE, Maiter DM, Martin JB. Sexual and developmental differences in peptides regulating growth hormone secretion in the rat. Neuroendocrinology. 1989 Sep; 50(3): 299-307. PMID: 2571953, ISSN: 0028-3835.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2571953.
  • Smith EP, Russell WE, French FS, Wilson EM. A form of basic fibroblast growth factor is secreted into the adluminal fluid of the rat coagulating gland. Prostate. 1989; 14(4): 353-65. PMID: 2748469, ISSN: 0270-4137.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2748469.
  • Lin SH, Russell WE. Two Ca2+-dependent ATPases in rat liver plasma membrane. The previously purified (Ca2+-Mg2+)-ATPase is not a Ca2+-pump but an ecto-ATPase. J. Biol. Chem. 1988 Sep 9/5/1988; 263(25): 12253-8. PMID: 2457581, ISSN: 0021-9258.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2457581.
  • Russell WE, Coffey RJ, Ouellette AJ, Moses HL. Type beta transforming growth factor reversibly inhibits the early proliferative response to partial hepatectomy in the rat. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1988 Jul; 85(14): 5126-30. PMID: 3164865, PMCID: PMC281701, ISSN: 0027-8424.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3164865.
  • Russell WE. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) inhibits hepatocyte DNA synthesis independently of EGF binding and EGF receptor autophosphorylation. J. Cell. Physiol. 1988 May; 135(2): 253-61. PMID: 3259581, DOI: 10.1002/jcp.1041350212, ISSN: 0021-9541.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3259581.
  • Lin S-H, Russell WE. Two Ca2+-dependent ATPases in rat liver plasma membrane: The previously purified Ca2+(Mg2+)- ATPase is not a Ca2+-pump but an ecto-ATPase. J Biol Chem. 1988; 263: 12253-8.
  • Russell WE, Coffey RJ, Jr, Ouellette AJ, Moses HL. Type ? transforming growth factor reversibly inhibits the early proliferative response to partial hepatectomy in the rat. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1988; 85: 5126-30.
  • Russell WE. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) inhibits hepatocyte DNA synthesis independent of EGF binding and EGF receptor phosphorylation. J Cell Physiol. 1988; 135: 253-61.
  • Cleveland RH, Kushner DC, Russell WE, Herman TE, Kim SH, Crawford J. Lipoid cell tumor of the ovary: a cause of virilization in girls. Am. J. Dis. Child. 1987 Jul; 141(7): 716-8. PMID: 3591756, ISSN: 0002-922X.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3591756.
  • Coughlin JP, Austen WG, Donahoe PK, Russell WE. Liver regeneration during immunosuppression. J. Pediatr. Surg. 1987 Jun; 22(6): 566-70. PMID: 3612448, PII: S0022346887002215, ISSN: 0022-3468.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3612448.
  • Russell WE, D'Ercole AJ, Underwood LE. Somatomedin C/insulinlike growth factor I during liver regeneration in the rat. Am. J. Physiol. 1985 May; 248(5 Pt 1): E618-23. PMID: 4039537, ISSN: 0002-9513.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4039537.
  • Russell WE. Growth hormone, somatomedins, and the liver. Semin. Liver Dis. 1985 Feb; 5(1): 46-58. PMID: 2984776, DOI: 10.1055/s-2008-1041757, ISSN: 0272-8087.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2984776.
  • Peters MA, Lau EP, Snitman DL, Van Wyk JJ, Underwood LE, Russell WE, Svoboda ME. Expression of a biologically active analogue of somatomedin-C/insulin-like growth factor I. Gene. 1985; 35(1-2): 83-9. PMID: 3896937, PII: 0378-1119(85)90160-X, ISSN: 0378-1119.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3896937.
  • Russell WE, D'Ercole AJ, Underwood LE. Somatomedin C/Insulinlike growth factor-I during liver regeneration in the rat. Am J Physiol (Endocrinol Metab 11). 1985; 248: E618-E623.
  • Russell WE, McGowan JA, Bucher NL. Biological properties of a hepatocyte growth factor from rat platelets. J. Cell. Physiol. 1984 May; 119(2): 193-7. PMID: 6715417, DOI: 10.1002/jcp.1041190208, ISSN: 0021-9541.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6715417.
  • Russell WE, McGowan JA, Bucher NL. Partial characterization of a hepatocyte growth factor from rat platelets. J. Cell. Physiol. 1984 May; 119(2): 183-92. PMID: 6715416, DOI: 10.1002/jcp.1041190207, ISSN: 0021-9541.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6715416.
  • Russell WE, Van Wyk JJ, Pledger WJ. Inhibition of the mitogenic effects of plasma by a monoclonal antibody to somatomedin C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1984 Apr; 81(8): 2389-92. PMID: 6371813, PMCID: PMC345065, ISSN: 0027-8424.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6371813.
  • Van Wyk JJ, Russell WE, Li CH. Synthetic somatomedin C: comparison with natural hormone isolated from human plasma. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1984 Feb; 81(3): 740-2. PMID: 6366789, PMCID: PMC344911, ISSN: 0027-8424.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6366789.
  • McGowan JA, Russell WE, Bucher NL. Hepatocyte DNA replication: effect of nutrients and intermediary metabolites. Fed. Proc. 1984 Jan; 43(1): 131-3. PMID: 6360714, ISSN: 0014-9446.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6360714.
  • Russell WE, Van Wyk JJ, Pledger WJ. Inhibition of the mitogenic effects of plasma by a monoclonal antibody to somatomedin-C. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1984; 81: 2389-92.
  • Kingsnorth AN, Russell WE, McCann PP, Diekema KA, Malt RA. Effects of alpha-difluoromethylornithine and 5-fluorouracil on the proliferation of a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line. Cancer Res. 1983 Sep; 43(9): 4035-8. PMID: 6409395, ISSN: 0008-5472.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6409395.
  • Russell WE, Bucher NL. Vasopressin modulates liver regeneration in the Brattleboro rat. Am. J. Physiol. 1983 Aug; 245(2): G321-4. PMID: 6881353, ISSN: 0002-9513.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6881353.
  • Russell WE, Bucher NLR. Vasopressin modulates liver regeneration in the Brattleboro rat. Am J Physiol (Gastrointest Liver Physiol 8). 1983; 245: G321-G324.
  • McFadden D, Jeffress LA, Russell WE. Individual differences in sensitivity to interaural differences in time and level. Percept Mot Skills. 1973 Dec; 37(3): 755-61. PMID: 4764506, DOI: 10.2466/pms.1973.37.3.755, ISSN: 0031-5125.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4764506.
  • Russell WE. Insolubilization and activation of arterial actomyosin by bivalent cations. Eur. J. Biochem. 1973 Mar 3/15/1973; 33(3): 459-66. PMID: 4120978, ISSN: 0014-2956.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4120978.