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Carl H.  Johnson

Carl H. Johnson, Ph.D.

Stevenson Professor of Biological Sciences
Researcher

Contact Information:

Vanderbilt University Medical Center
Box 1634 Sta B
Nashville, TN 37232
615-322-2384

Research Description

Organisms and even single cells have endogenous biological "clocks" that allow them to tell the time of day. Research in our laboratory is directed towards understanding the cellular and molecular bases of these fascinating timing mechanisms in a variety of organisms: cyanobacteria ("blue-green algae"), plants, and animals. To analyze the molecular nature of the clock in the prokaryotic cyanobacteria, we have developed a bioluminescent reporter strain that expresses a daily rhythm of light emission. Using this bioluminescence rhythm as a marker, clock mutants have been identified. We found that the essential clock gene, KaiC, is rhythmically expressed and forms ATP-dependent hexamers. In collaboration with the laboratory of Dr. Martin Egli, we have crystallized KaiC to determine its three-dimensional structure and discover its phosphorylation sites. The three key bacterial clock proteins (KaiA + KaiB + KaiC) will show circadian oscillations in a test tube! In collaboration with the laboratories of Drs. Phoebe Stewart and Hassane Mchaourab, we are applying electron microscopic and biophysical methods to explain how these proteins oscillate in vitro. Furthermore, we are using clock mutants of cyanobacteria to provide the first rigorous evidence for the adaptive significance of circadian clocks in fitness.

We also study the neuroscience of the circadian system of mammals. To measure circadian rhythms in brain slices in vitro, we use transgenic mice that express luciferase rhythmically. As a model system, we have also created a fibroblast cell line that is stably transfected with a luciferase reporter and glows rhythmically. Therefore, we use luminescence as a tool to monitor circadian rhythms in the brain. Future studies will focus upon understanding the signal transduction pathway of calcium to the clock and the role of clock genes in the fundamental mammalian clockwork.

We have recently extended our studies to the genetics of the human biological clock. We are examining clock gene polymorphisms in human populations to determine how the neurogenetics of the biological clock affects our ability to adapt to shiftwork cycles and how it can influence mental health (esp. depression). Because daily biological clocks control a myriad of fundamental cellular activities, including cell division, metabolism, gene expression, and ion channel, the elucidation of the timing mechanism will have ramifications for many aspects of temporal regulation, including mental health, cancer, and jet lag.

Finally, we have developed a new method for measuring protein-protein interactions based upon the resonance energy between a luciferase and a fluorescent protein. This method is called Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer, or BRET. This technique has allowed us to develop novel reporters for intracellular calcium and hydrogen ions. We envision a bright future for this technique.

See our laboratory website at: http://www.cas.vanderbilt.edu/johnsonlab/

Publications
  • Veatch OJ, Pendergast JS, Allen MJ, Leu RM, Johnson CH, Elsea SH, Malow BA. Genetic variation in melatonin pathway enzymes in children with autism spectrum disorder and comorbid sleep onset delay. J Autism Dev Disord. 2015 Jan; 45(1): 100-10. PMID: 25059483, PMCID: PMC4289108, DOI: 10.1007/s10803-014-2197-4, ISSN: 1573-3432.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25059483.
  • Pattanayek R, Xu Y, Lamichhane A, Johnson CH, Egli M. An arginine tetrad as mediator of input-dependent and input-independent ATPases in the clock protein KaiC. Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr [print-electronic]. 2014 May; 70(Pt 5): 1375-90. PMID: 24816106, PII: S1399004714003228, DOI: 10.1107/S1399004714003228, ISSN: 1399-0047.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24816106.
  • Yan Y, Jiang L, Aufderheide KJ, Wright GA, Terekhov A, Costa L, Qin K, McCleery WT, Fellenstein JJ, Ustione A, Robertson JB, Johnson CH, Piston DW, Hutson MS, Wikswo JP, Hofmeister W, Janetopoulos C. A microfluidic-enabled mechanical microcompressor for the immobilization of live single- and multi-cellular specimens. Microsc. Microanal [print-electronic]. 2014 Feb; 20(1): 141-51. PMID: 24444078, PMCID: PMC4026272, PII: S1431927613014037, DOI: 10.1017/S1431927613014037, ISSN: 1435-8115.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24444078.
  • Johnson CH, Egli M. Metabolic compensation and circadian resilience in prokaryotic cyanobacteria. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 2014; 83: 221-47. PMID: 24905782, PMCID: PMC4259047, DOI: 10.1146/annurev-biochem-060713-035632, ISSN: 1545-4509.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24905782.
  • Robertson JB, Davis CR, Johnson CH. Visible light alters yeast metabolic rhythms by inhibiting respiration. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2013 Dec 12/24/2013; 110(52): 21130-5. PMID: 24297928, PMCID: PMC3876234, PII: 1313369110, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1313369110, ISSN: 1091-6490.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24297928.
  • Xu Y, Weyman PD, Umetani M, Xiong J, Qin X, Xu Q, Iwasaki H, Johnson CH. Circadian yin-yang regulation and its manipulation to globally reprogram gene expression. Curr. Biol [print-electronic]. 2013 Dec 12/2/2013; 23(23): 2365-74. PMID: 24210617, PMCID: PMC3889637, PII: S0960-9822(13)01251-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2013.10.011, ISSN: 1879-0445.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24210617.
  • de la Iglesia HO, Johnson CH. Biological clocks: riding the tides. Curr. Biol. 2013 Oct 10/21/2013; 23(20): R921-3. PMID: 24156810, PMCID: PMC4307598, PII: S0960-9822(13)01118-4, DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2013.09.006, ISSN: 1879-0445.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24156810.
  • Bittman EL, Johnson CH. Animal care practices in research on biological rhythms and sleep [editorial]. J. Biol. Rhythms. 2013 Oct; 28(5): 303-4. PMID: 24132055, PII: 28/5/303, DOI: 10.1177/0748730413502313, ISSN: 1552-4531.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24132055.
  • Egli M, Johnson CH. A circadian clock nanomachine that runs without transcription or translation. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol [print-electronic]. 2013 Oct; 23(5): 732-40. PMID: 23571120, PMCID: PMC3735861, PII: S0959-4388(13)00060-3, DOI: 10.1016/j.conb.2013.02.012, ISSN: 1873-6882.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23571120.
  • Ma P, Woelfle MA, Johnson CH. An Evolutionary Fitness Enhancement Conferred by the Circadian System in Cyanobacteria. Chaos Solitons Fractals. 2013 May 5/1/2013; 50: 65-74. PMID: 23626410, PMCID: PMC3633149, DOI: 10.1016/j.chaos.2012.11.006, ISSN: 0960-0779.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23626410.
  • Xu Y, Ma P, Shah P, Rokas A, Liu Y, Johnson CH. Non-optimal codon usage is a mechanism to achieve circadian clock conditionality. Nature [print-electronic]. 2013 Mar 3/7/2013; 495(7439): 116-20. PMID: 23417065, PMCID: PMC3593822, PII: nature11942, DOI: 10.1038/nature11942, ISSN: 1476-4687.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23417065.
  • Shi SQ, Ansari TS, McGuinness OP, Wasserman DH, Johnson CH. Circadian disruption leads to insulin resistance and obesity. Curr. Biol [print-electronic]. 2013 Mar 3/4/2013; 23(5): 372-81. PMID: 23434278, PMCID: PMC3595381, PII: S0960-9822(13)00083-3, DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2013.01.048, ISSN: 1879-0445.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23434278.
  • Egli M, Pattanayek R, Sheehan JH, Xu Y, Mori T, Smith JA, Johnson CH. Loop-loop interactions regulate KaiA-stimulated KaiC phosphorylation in the cyanobacterial KaiABC circadian clock. Biochemistry [print-electronic]. 2013 Feb 2/19/2013; 52(7): 1208-20. PMID: 23351065, PMCID: PMC3587310, DOI: 10.1021/bi301691a, ISSN: 1520-4995.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23351065.
  • Gamble KL, Resuehr D, Johnson CH. Shift work and circadian dysregulation of reproduction. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2013; 4: 92. PMID: 23966978, PMCID: PMC3736045, DOI: 10.3389/fendo.2013.00092, ISSN: 1664-2392.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23966978.
  • Edgar RS, Green EW, Zhao Y, van Ooijen G, Olmedo M, Qin X, Xu Y, Pan M, Valekunja UK, Feeney KA, Maywood ES, Hastings MH, Baliga NS, Merrow M, Millar AJ, Johnson CH, Kyriacou CP, O'Neill JS, Reddy AB. Peroxiredoxins are conserved markers of circadian rhythms. Nature. 2012 May 5/24/2012; 485(7399): 459-64. PMID: 22622569, PMCID: PMC3398137, PII: nature11088, DOI: 10.1038/nature11088, ISSN: 1476-4687.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22622569.
  • Egli M, Mori T, Pattanayek R, Xu Y, Qin X, Johnson CH. Dephosphorylation of the core clock protein KaiC in the cyanobacterial KaiABC circadian oscillator proceeds via an ATP synthase mechanism. Biochemistry [print-electronic]. 2012 Feb 2/28/2012; 51(8): 1547-58. PMID: 22304631, PMCID: PMC3293397, DOI: 10.1021/bi201525n, ISSN: 1520-4995.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22304631.
  • Zhang Y, Xie Q, Robertson JB, Johnson CH. PHlash: a new genetically encoded and ratiometric luminescence sensor of intracellular pH. PLoS ONE [print-electronic]. 2012; 7(8): e43072. PMID: 22905204, PMCID: PMC3419163, PII: PONE-D-12-00656, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043072, ISSN: 1932-6203.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22905204.
  • Gamble KL, Motsinger-Reif AA, Hida A, Borsetti HM, Servick SV, Ciarleglio CM, Robbins S, Hicks J, Carver K, Hamilton N, Wells N, Summar ML, McMahon DG, Johnson CH. Shift work in nurses: contribution of phenotypes and genotypes to adaptation. PLoS ONE. 2011; 6(4): e18395. PMID: 21533241, PMCID: PMC3076422, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0018395, ISSN: 1932-6203.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21533241.
  • Johnson CH, Stewart PL, Egli M. The cyanobacterial circadian system: from biophysics to bioevolution. Annu Rev Biophys. 2011; 40: 143-67. PMID: 21332358, PMCID: PMC3093959, DOI: 10.1146/annurev-biophys-042910-155317, ISSN: 1936-1238.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21332358.
  • Pattanayek R, Williams DR, Rossi G, Weigand S, Mori T, Johnson CH, Stewart PL, Egli M. Combined SAXS/EM based models of the S. elongatus post-translational circadian oscillator and its interactions with the output His-kinase SasA. PLoS ONE [print-electronic]. 2011; 6(8): e23697. PMID: 21887298, PMCID: PMC3161067, PII: PONE-D-11-10289, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023697, ISSN: 1932-6203.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21887298.
  • Robertson JB, Johnson CH. Luminescence as a continuous real-time reporter of promoter activity in yeast undergoing respiratory oscillations or cell division rhythms. Methods Mol. Biol. 2011; 734: 63-79. PMID: 21468985, PMCID: PMC3433746, DOI: 10.1007/978-1-61779-086-7_4, ISSN: 1940-6029.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21468985.
  • Xie Q, Soutto M, Xu X, Zhang Y, Johnson CH. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) imaging in plant seedlings and mammalian cells. Methods Mol. Biol. 2011; 680: 3-28. PMID: 21153370, PMCID: PMC3432581, DOI: 10.1007/978-1-60761-901-7_1, ISSN: 1940-6029.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21153370.
  • Johnson CH. Circadian clocks and cell division: what's the pacemaker?. Cell Cycle [print-electronic]. 2010 Oct 10/1/2010; 9(19): 3864-73. PMID: 20890114, PMCID: PMC3047750, PII: 13205, ISSN: 1551-4005.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20890114.
  • Qin X, Byrne M, Mori T, Zou P, Williams DR, McHaourab H, Johnson CH. Intermolecular associations determine the dynamics of the circadian KaiABC oscillator. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2010 Aug 8/17/2010; 107(33): 14805-10. PMID: 20679240, PMCID: PMC2930409, PII: 1002119107, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1002119107, ISSN: 1091-6490.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20679240.
  • Shi S, Hida A, McGuinness OP, Wasserman DH, Yamazaki S, Johnson CH. Circadian clock gene Bmal1 is not essential; functional replacement with its paralog, Bmal2. Curr. Biol [print-electronic]. 2010 Feb 2/23/2010; 20(4): 316-21. PMID: 20153195, PMCID: PMC2907674, PII: S0960-9822(09)02158-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2009.12.034, ISSN: 1879-0445.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20153195.
  • Qin X, Byrne M, Xu Y, Mori T, Johnson CH. Coupling of a core post-translational pacemaker to a slave transcription/translation feedback loop in a circadian system. PLoS Biol. 2010; 8(6): e1000394. PMID: 20563306, PMCID: PMC2885980, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000394, ISSN: 1545-7885.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20563306.
  • Xu X, Graeff R, Xie Q, Gamble KL, Mori T, Johnson CH. Comment on "The Arabidopsis circadian clock incorporates a cADPR-based feedback loop". Science. 2009 Oct 10/9/2009; 326(5950): 230; author reply 230. PMID: 19815758, PMCID: PMC2934760, PII: 326/5950/230-b, DOI: 10.1126/science.1169503, ISSN: 1095-9203.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19815758.
  • Robertson JB, Zhang Y, Johnson CH. Light-emitting diode flashlights as effective and inexpensive light sources for fluorescence microscopy. J Microsc. 2009 Oct; 236(1): 1-4. PMID: 19772530, PMCID: PMC2751867, PII: JMI3208, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2818.2009.03208.x, ISSN: 1365-2818.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19772530.
  • J.L. Ditty, S.R. Mackey, C.H. Johnson, editors. Bacterial Circadian Programs. [place unknown: publisher unknown]; 2009.
  • Pattanayek R, Mori T, Xu Y, Pattanayek S, Johnson CH, Egli M. Structures of KaiC circadian clock mutant proteins: a new phosphorylation site at T426 and mechanisms of kinase, ATPase and phosphatase. PLoS ONE. 2009; 4(11): e7529. PMID: 19956664, PMCID: PMC2777353, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007529, ISSN: 1932-6203.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19956664.
  • Xu Y, Mori T, Qin X, Yan H, Egli M, Johnson CH. Intramolecular regulation of phosphorylation status of the circadian clock protein KaiC. PLoS ONE. 2009; 4(11): e7509. PMID: 19946629, PMCID: PMC2778140, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007509, ISSN: 1932-6203.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19946629.
  • Robertson JB, Stowers CC, Boczko E, Johnson CH. Real-time luminescence monitoring of cell-cycle and respiratory oscillations in yeast. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2008 Nov 11/18/2008; 105(46): 17988-93. PMID: 19004762, PMCID: PMC2584751, PII: 0809482105, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0809482105, ISSN: 1091-6490.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19004762.
  • Johnson CH, Egli M, Stewart PL. Structural insights into a circadian oscillator. Science. 2008 Oct 10/31/2008; 322(5902): 697-701. PMID: 18974343, PMCID: PMC2588432, PII: 322/5902/697, DOI: 10.1126/science.1150451, ISSN: 1095-9203.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18974343.
  • Vougogiannopoulou K, Ferandin Y, Bettayeb K, Myrianthopoulos V, Lozach O, Fan Y, Johnson CH, Magiatis P, Skaltsounis AL, Mikros E, Meijer L. Soluble 3',6-substituted indirubins with enhanced selectivity toward glycogen synthase kinase -3 alter circadian period. J. Med. Chem [print-electronic]. 2008 Oct 10/23/2008; 51(20): 6421-31. PMID: 18816110, PMCID: PMC2717725, DOI: 10.1021/jm800648y, ISSN: 1520-4804.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18816110.
  • Johnson CH, Mori T, Xu Y. A cyanobacterial circadian clockwork. Curr. Biol. 2008 Sep 9/9/2008; 18(17): R816-R825. PMID: 18786387, PMCID: PMC2585598, PII: S0960-9822(08)00877-4, DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2008.07.012, ISSN: 0960-9822.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18786387.
  • Ciarleglio CM, Ryckman KK, Servick SV, Hida A, Robbins S, Wells N, Hicks J, Larson SA, Wiedermann JP, Carver K, Hamilton N, Kidd KK, Kidd JR, Smith JR, Friedlaender J, McMahon DG, Williams SM, Summar ML, Johnson CH. Genetic differences in human circadian clock genes among worldwide populations. J. Biol. Rhythms. 2008 Aug; 23(4): 330-40. PMID: 18663240, PMCID: PMC2579796, PII: 23/4/330, DOI: 10.1177/0748730408320284, ISSN: 0748-7304.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18663240.
  • Pattanayek R, Williams DR, Pattanayek S, Mori T, Johnson CH, Stewart PL, Egli M. Structural model of the circadian clock KaiB-KaiC complex and mechanism for modulation of KaiC phosphorylation. EMBO J [print-electronic]. 2008 Jun 6/18/2008; 27(12): 1767-78. PMID: 18497745, PMCID: PMC2435126, PII: emboj2008104, DOI: 10.1038/emboj.2008.104, ISSN: 1460-2075.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18497745.
  • Bonneau R, Facciotti MT, Reiss DJ, Schmid AK, Pan M, Kaur A, Thorsson V, Shannon P, Johnson MH, Bare JC, Longabaugh W, Vuthoori M, Whitehead K, Madar A, Suzuki L, Mori T, Chang DE, Diruggiero J, Johnson CH, Hood L, Baliga NS. A predictive model for transcriptional control of physiology in a free living cell. Cell. 2007 Dec 12/28/2007; 131(7): 1354-65. PMID: 18160043, PII: S0092-8674(07)01416-X, DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2007.10.053, ISSN: 0092-8674.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18160043.
  • Woelfle MA, Xu Y, Qin X, Johnson CH. Circadian rhythms of superhelical status of DNA in cyanobacteria. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2007 Nov 11/20/2007; 104(47): 18819-24. PMID: 18000054, PMCID: PMC2141860, PII: 0706069104, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0706069104, ISSN: 1091-6490.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18000054.
  • Xu X, Hotta CT, Dodd AN, Love J, Sharrock R, Lee YW, Xie Q, Johnson CH, Webb AA. Distinct light and clock modulation of cytosolic free Ca2+ oscillations and rhythmic CHLOROPHYLL A/B BINDING PROTEIN2 promoter activity in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell [print-electronic]. 2007 Nov; 19(11): 3474-90. PMID: 17982000, PMCID: PMC2174886, PII: tpc.106.046011, DOI: 10.1105/tpc.106.046011, ISSN: 1040-4651.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17982000.
  • Fan Y, Hida A, Anderson DA, Izumo M, Johnson CH. Cycling of CRYPTOCHROME proteins is not necessary for circadian-clock function in mammalian fibroblasts. Curr. Biol [print-electronic]. 2007 Jul 7/3/2007; 17(13): 1091-100. PMID: 17583506, PMCID: PMC3434691, PII: S0960-9822(07)01472-8, DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2007.05.048, ISSN: 0960-9822.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17583506.
  • Xu X, Soutto M, Xie Q, Servick S, Subramanian C, von Arnim AG, Johnson CH. Imaging protein interactions with bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) in plant and mammalian cells and tissues. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2007 Jun 6/12/2007; 104(24): 10264-9. PMID: 17551013, PMCID: PMC1891211, PII: 0701987104, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0701987104, ISSN: 0027-8424.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17551013.
  • Mori T, Williams DR, Byrne MO, Qin X, Egli M, Mchaourab HS, Stewart PL, Johnson CH. Elucidating the ticking of an in vitro circadian clockwork. PLoS Biol. 2007 Apr; 5(4): e93. PMID: 17388688, PMCID: PMC1831719, PII: 06-PLBI-RA-2188R2, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0050093, ISSN: 1545-7885.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17388688.
  • Johnson CH. Bacterial circadian programs. Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol. 2007; 72: 395-404. PMID: 18419297, DOI: 10.1101/sqb.2007.72.027, ISSN: 0091-7451.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18419297.
  • Woelfle MA, Johnson CH. No promoter left behind: global circadian gene expression in cyanobacteria. J. Biol. Rhythms. 2006 Dec; 21(6): 419-31. PMID: 17107933, PMCID: PMC3431602, PII: 21/6/419, DOI: 10.1177/0748730406294418, ISSN: 0748-7304.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17107933.
  • Izumo M, Sato TR, Straume M, Johnson CH. Quantitative analyses of circadian gene expression in mammalian cell cultures. PLoS Comput. Biol. 2006 Oct; 2(10): e136. PMID: 17040123, PMCID: PMC1599765, PII: 06-PLCB-RA-0163R2, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.0020136, ISSN: 1553-7358.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17040123.
  • Subramanian C, Woo J, Cai X, Xu X, Servick S, Johnson CH, Nebenführ A, von Arnim AG. A suite of tools and application notes for in vivo protein interaction assays using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET). Plant J [print-electronic]. 2006 Oct; 48(1): 138-52. PMID: 16925598, PII: TPJ2851, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2006.02851.x, ISSN: 0960-7412.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16925598.
  • Pattanayek R, Williams DR, Pattanayek S, Xu Y, Mori T, Johnson CH, Stewart PL, Egli M. Analysis of KaiA-KaiC protein interactions in the cyano-bacterial circadian clock using hybrid structural methods. EMBO J [print-electronic]. 2006 May 5/3/2006; 25(9): 2017-28. PMID: 16628225, PMCID: PMC1456936, PII: 7601086, DOI: 10.1038/sj.emboj.7601086, ISSN: 0261-4189.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16628225.
  • Johnson, C.H., R. Shingles, and W.F. Ettinger. In: The Structure and Function of Plastids, Chapter 20. [place unknown: publisher unknown]; 2006. (23).
  • Johnson, C.H., and S.S. Golden. Circadian Rhythms in Cyanobacteria. In: Nature Encyclopedia of Life Sciences, Nature Publishing Group, London: www.els.net. 2006.
  • Johnson, C.H.. Reminiscences from Pittendrigh's last Ph.D. student. Resonance. 2006; 11: 22-31.
  • Mittag M, Kiaulehn S, Johnson CH. The circadian clock in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. What is it for? What is it similar to?. Plant Physiol. 2005 Feb; 137(2): 399-409. PMID: 15710681, PMCID: PMC1065344, PII: 137/2/399, DOI: 10.1104/pp.104.052415, ISSN: 0032-0889.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15710681.
  • Johnson CH. Testing the adaptive value of circadian systems. Meth. Enzymol. 2005; 393: 818-37. PMID: 15817326, PII: S0076687905930437, DOI: 10.1016/S0076-6879(05)93043-7, ISSN: 1557-7988.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15817326.
  • Johnson, C.H. Testing the adaptive value of circadian systems. Methods in Enzymology. 2005; 393: 818-37.
  • Johnson, C.H. and C.P. Kyriacou. In: Endogenous Plant Rhythms. [place unknown: publisher unknown]; 2005.
  • Soutto M., Y. Xu, and C. H. Johnson. Bioluminescence RET (BRET): techniques and potential. In: Molecular Imaging: FRET Microscopy and Spectroscopy. 2005; 260-71.
  • Xu Y, Mori T, Pattanayek R, Pattanayek S, Egli M, Johnson CH. Identification of key phosphorylation sites in the circadian clock protein KaiC by crystallographic and mutagenetic analyses. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2004 Sep 9/21/2004; 101(38): 13933-8. PMID: 15347809, PMCID: PMC518856, PII: 0404768101, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0404768101, ISSN: 0027-8424.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15347809.
  • Woelfle MA, Ouyang Y, Phanvijhitsiri K, Johnson CH. The adaptive value of circadian clocks: an experimental assessment in cyanobacteria. Curr. Biol. 2004 Aug 8/24/2004; 14(16): 1481-6. PMID: 15324665, PII: S0960982204006062, DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2004.08.023, ISSN: 0960-9822.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15324665.
  • Pattanayek R, Wang J, Mori T, Xu Y, Johnson CH, Egli M. Visualizing a circadian clock protein: crystal structure of KaiC and functional insights. Mol. Cell. 2004 Aug 8/13/2004; 15(3): 375-88. PMID: 15304218, PII: S1097276504004356, DOI: 10.1016/j.molcel.2004.07.013, ISSN: 1097-2765.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15304218.
  • Johnson CH. Precise circadian clocks in prokaryotic cyanobacteria. Curr Issues Mol Biol. 2004 Jul; 6(2): 103-10. PMID: 15119821, ISSN: 1467-3037.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15119821.
  • Subramanian C, Kim BH, Lyssenko NN, Xu X, Johnson CH, von Arnim AG. The Arabidopsis repressor of light signaling, COP1, is regulated by nuclear exclusion: mutational analysis by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2004 Apr 4/27/2004; 101(17): 6798-802. PMID: 15084749, PMCID: PMC404125, PII: 0307964101, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0307964101, ISSN: 0027-8424.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15084749.
  • Min H, Liu Y, Johnson CH, Golden SS. Phase determination of circadian gene expression in Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. J. Biol. Rhythms. 2004 Apr; 19(2): 103-12. PMID: 15038850, DOI: 10.1177/0748730403262056, ISSN: 0748-7304.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15038850.
  • Johnson CH. Global orchestration of gene expression by the biological clock of cyanobacteria. Genome Biol [print-electronic]. 2004; 5(4): 217. PMID: 15059250, PMCID: PMC395776, PII: gb-2004-5-4-217, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2004-5-4-217, ISSN: 1474-760X.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15059250.
  • Johnson, C.H. and M. Egli. Visualizing a biological clockwork's cogs. Nature Structural and Molecular Biology. 2004; 11((7)): 584-5.
    Available from: http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/nsmb/journal/v11/n7/full/nsmb0704-584.html&filetype=pdf.
  • Johnson, C.H.. As time glows by in bacteria. Nature. 2004; 430((1)): 23-4.
    Available from: http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/nature/journal/v430/n6995/full/430023a_fs.html&content_filetype=pdf.
  • Subramanian C, Xu Y, Johnson CH, von Arnim AG. In vivo detection of protein-protein interaction in plant cells using BRET. Methods Mol. Biol. 2004; 284: 271-86. PMID: 15173623, PII: 1-59259-816-1:271, DOI: 10.1385/1-59259-816-1:271, ISSN: 1064-3745.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15173623.
  • Izumo M, Johnson CH, Yamazaki S. Circadian gene expression in mammalian fibroblasts revealed by real-time luminescence reporting: temperature compensation and damping. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2003 Dec 12/23/2003; 100(26): 16089-94. PMID: 14657355, PMCID: PMC307697, PII: 2536313100, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2536313100, ISSN: 0027-8424.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14657355.
  • Johnson CH, Elliott JA, Foster R. Entrainment of circadian programs. Chronobiol. Int. 2003 Sep; 20(5): 741-74. PMID: 14535352, ISSN: 0742-0528.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14535352.
  • Xu Y, Mori T, Johnson CH. Cyanobacterial circadian clockwork: roles of KaiA, KaiB and the kaiBC promoter in regulating KaiC. EMBO J. 2003 May 5/1/2003; 22(9): 2117-26. PMID: 12727878, PMCID: PMC156062, DOI: 10.1093/emboj/cdg168, ISSN: 0261-4189.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12727878.
  • Schoenhard JA, Smith LH, Painter CA, Eren M, Johnson CH, Vaughan DE. Regulation of the PAI-1 promoter by circadian clock components: differential activation by BMAL1 and BMAL2. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 2003 May; 35(5): 473-81. PMID: 12738229, PII: S0022282803000518, ISSN: 0022-2828.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12738229.
  • Hastings JW, Johnson CH. Bioluminescence and chemiluminescence. Meth. Enzymol. 2003; 360: 75-104. PMID: 12622147, ISSN: 0076-6879.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12622147.
  • Xu Y, Kanauchi A, von Arnim AG, Piston DW, Johnson CH. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer: monitoring protein-protein interactions in living cells. Meth. Enzymol. 2003; 360: 289-301. PMID: 12622156, ISSN: 0076-6879.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12622156.
  • Mori T, Saveliev SV, Xu Y, Stafford WF, Cox MM, Inman RB, Johnson CH. Circadian clock protein KaiC forms ATP-dependent hexameric rings and binds DNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2002 Dec 12/24/2002; 99(26): 17203-8. PMID: 12477935, PMCID: PMC139293, PII: 262578499, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.262578499, ISSN: 0027-8424.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12477935.
  • Schoenhard JA, Eren M, Johnson CH, Vaughan DE. Alternative splicing yields novel BMAL2 variants: tissue distribution and functional characterization. Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. 2002 Jul; 283(1): C103-14. PMID: 12055078, DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.00541.2001, ISSN: 0363-6143.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12055078.
  • Sai J, Johnson CH. Dark-stimulated calcium ion fluxes in the chloroplast stroma and cytosol. Plant Cell. 2002 Jun; 14(6): 1279-91. PMID: 12084827, PMCID: PMC150780, ISSN: 1040-4651.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12084827.
  • Suzuki L, Johnson CH. Photoperiodic control of germination in the unicell Chlamydomonas. Naturwissenschaften. 2002 May; 89(5): 214-20. PMID: 12135086, ISSN: 0028-1042.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12135086.
  • Xu Y, Johnson CH, Piston D. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer assays for protein-protein interactions in living cells. Methods Mol. Biol. 2002; 183: 121-33. PMID: 12136748, PII: 1-59259-280-5-121, DOI: 10.1385/1-59259-280-5:121, ISSN: 1064-3745.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12136748.
  • Mori T, Johnson CH. Circadian programming in cyanobacteria. Semin. Cell Dev. Biol. 2001 Aug; 12(4): 271-8. PMID: 11463211, PII: S1084-9521(01)90254-X, DOI: 10.1006/scdb.2001.0254, ISSN: 1084-9521.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11463211.
  • Xu Y, Johnson CH. A clock- and light-regulated gene that links the circadian oscillator to LHCB gene expression. Plant Cell. 2001 Jun; 13(6): 1411-25. PMID: 11402169, PMCID: PMC135572, ISSN: 1040-4651.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11402169.
  • Mori T, Johnson CH. Independence of circadian timing from cell division in cyanobacteria. J. Bacteriol. 2001 Apr; 183(8): 2439-44. PMID: 11274102, PMCID: PMC95159, DOI: 10.1128/JB.183.8.2439-2444.2001, ISSN: 0021-9193.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11274102.
  • Dassarma S, Kennedy SP, Berquist B, Victor Ng W, Baliga NS, Spudich JL, Krebs MP, Eisen JA, Johnson CH, Hood L. Genomic perspective on the photobiology of Halobacterium species NRC-1, a phototrophic, phototactic, and UV-tolerant haloarchaeon. Photosyn. Res. 2001; 70(1): 3-17. PMID: 16228359, DOI: 10.1023/A:1013879706863, ISSN: 1573-5079.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16228359.
  • Johnson CH. Endogenous timekeepers in photosynthetic organisms. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 2001; 63: 695-728. PMID: 11181973, PII: 63/1/695, DOI: 10.1146/annurev.physiol.63.1.695, ISSN: 0066-4278.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11181973.
  • Xu Y, Mori T, Johnson CH. Circadian clock-protein expression in cyanobacteria: rhythms and phase setting. EMBO J. 2000 Jul 7/3/2000; 19(13): 3349-57. PMID: 10880447, PMCID: PMC313937, DOI: 10.1093/emboj/19.13.3349, ISSN: 0261-4189.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10880447.
  • Nikaido SS, Johnson CH. Daily and circadian variation in survival from ultraviolet radiation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Photochem. Photobiol. 2000 Jun; 71(6): 758-65. PMID: 10857373, ISSN: 0031-8655.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10857373.
  • Mori T, Johnson CH. Circadian control of cell division in unicellular organisms. Prog Cell Cycle Res. 2000; 4: 185-92. PMID: 10740825, ISSN: 1087-2957.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10740825.
  • Johnson CH. Forty years of PRCs--what have we learned?. Chronobiol. Int. 1999 Nov; 16(6): 711-43. PMID: 10584173, ISSN: 0742-0528.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10584173.
  • Sai J, Johnson CH. Different circadian oscillators control Ca(2+) fluxes and lhcb gene expression. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1999 Sep 9/28/1999; 96(20): 11659-63. PMID: 10500233, PMCID: PMC18090, ISSN: 0027-8424.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10500233.
  • Xu Y, Piston DW, Johnson CH. A bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) system: application to interacting circadian clock proteins. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1999 Jan 1/5/1999; 96(1): 151-6. PMID: 9874787, PMCID: PMC15108, ISSN: 0027-8424.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9874787.
  • Johnson CH, Golden SS. Circadian programs in cyanobacteria: adaptiveness and mechanism. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 1999; 53: 389-409. PMID: 10547696, DOI: 10.1146/annurev.micro.53.1.389, ISSN: 0066-4227.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10547696.
  • Golden SS, Johnson CH, Kondo T. The cyanobacterial circadian system: a clock apart. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 1998 Dec; 1(6): 669-73. PMID: 10066545, PII: S1369-5274(98)80113-6, ISSN: 1369-5274.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10066545.
  • Johnson CH, Golden SS, Kondo T. Adaptive significance of circadian programs in cyanobacteria. Trends Microbiol. 1998 Oct; 6(10): 407-10. PMID: 9807785, PII: S0966-842X(98)01356-0, ISSN: 0966-842X.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9807785.
  • Ishiura M, Kutsuna S, Aoki S, Iwasaki H, Andersson CR, Tanabe A, Golden SS, Johnson CH, Kondo T. Expression of a gene cluster kaiABC as a circadian feedback process in cyanobacteria. Science. 1998 Sep 9/4/1998; 281(5382): 1519-23. PMID: 9727980, ISSN: 0036-8075.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9727980.
  • Ouyang Y, Andersson CR, Kondo T, Golden SS, Johnson CH. Resonating circadian clocks enhance fitness in cyanobacteria. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1998 Jul 7/21/1998; 95(15): 8660-4. PMID: 9671734, PMCID: PMC21132, ISSN: 0027-8424.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9671734.
  • Golden SS, Ishiura M, Johnson CH, Kondo T. CYANOBACTERIAL CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 1997 Jun; 48: 327-54. PMID: 15012266, DOI: 10.1146/annurev.arplant.48.1.327, ISSN: 1040-2519.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15012266.
  • Mori T, Binder B, Johnson CH. Circadian gating of cell division in cyanobacteria growing with average doubling times of less than 24 hours. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1996 Sep 9/17/1996; 93(19): 10183-8. PMID: 8816773, PMCID: PMC38358, ISSN: 0027-8424.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8816773.
  • Jacobshagen S, Kindle KL, Johnson CH. Transcription of CABII is regulated by the biological clock in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Plant Mol. Biol. 1996 Sep; 31(6): 1173-84. PMID: 8914533, ISSN: 0167-4412.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8914533.
  • Johnson CH, Golden SS, Ishiura M, Kondo T. Circadian clocks in prokaryotes. Mol. Microbiol. 1996 Jul; 21(1): 5-11. PMID: 8843429, ISSN: 0950-382X.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8843429.
  • Liu Y, Tsinoremas NF, Golden SS, Kondo T, Johnson CH. Circadian expression of genes involved in the purine biosynthetic pathway of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942. Mol. Microbiol. 1996 Jun; 20(5): 1071-81. PMID: 8809759, ISSN: 0950-382X.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8809759.
  • Tsinoremas NF, Ishiura M, Kondo T, Andersson CR, Tanaka K, Takahashi H, Johnson CH, Golden SS. A sigma factor that modifies the circadian expression of a subset of genes in cyanobacteria. EMBO J. 1996 May 5/15/1996; 15(10): 2488-95. PMID: 8665856, PMCID: PMC450181, ISSN: 0261-4189.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8665856.
  • Johnson CH, Knight MR, Kondo T, Masson P, Sedbrook J, Haley A, Trewavas A. Circadian oscillations of cytosolic and chloroplastic free calcium in plants. Science. 1995 Sep 9/29/1995; 269(5232): 1863-5. PMID: 7569925, ISSN: 0036-8075.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7569925.
  • Liu Y, Tsinoremas NF, Johnson CH, Lebedeva NV, Golden SS, Ishiura M, Kondo T. Circadian orchestration of gene expression in cyanobacteria. Genes Dev. 1995 Jun 6/15/1995; 9(12): 1469-78. PMID: 7601351, ISSN: 0890-9369.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7601351.
  • Goto K, Johnson CH. Is the cell division cycle gated by a circadian clock? The case of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. J. Cell Biol. 1995 May; 129(4): 1061-9. PMID: 7744955, PMCID: PMC2120501, ISSN: 0021-9525.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7744955.
  • Liu Y, Golden SS, Kondo T, Ishiura M, Johnson CH. Bacterial luciferase as a reporter of circadian gene expression in cyanobacteria. J. Bacteriol. 1995 Apr; 177(8): 2080-6. PMID: 7536731, PMCID: PMC176852, ISSN: 0021-9193.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7536731.
  • Johnson CH, Nakaoka Y, Miwa I. The effects of altering extracellular potassium ion concentration on the membrane potential and circadian clock of Paramecium bursaria. J. Exp. Biol. 1994 Dec; 197: 295-308. PMID: 7852906, ISSN: 0022-0949.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7852906.
  • Kondo T, Tsinoremas NF, Golden SS, Johnson CH, Kutsuna S, Ishiura M. Circadian clock mutants of cyanobacteria. Science. 1994 Nov 11/18/1994; 266(5188): 1233-6. PMID: 7973706, ISSN: 0036-8075.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7973706.
  • Johnson CH. Illuminating the clock: circadian photobiology. Semin. Cell Biol. 1994 Oct; 5(5): 355-62. PMID: 7881075, ISSN: 1043-4682.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7881075.
  • Jacobshagen S, Johnson CH. Circadian rhythms of gene expression in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: circadian cycling of mRNA abundances of cab II, and possibly of beta-tubulin and cytochrome c. Eur. J. Cell Biol. 1994 Jun; 64(1): 142-52. PMID: 7957302, ISSN: 0171-9335.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7957302.
  • Kondo T, Strayer CA, Kulkarni RD, Taylor W, Ishiura M, Golden SS, Johnson CH. Circadian rhythms in prokaryotes: luciferase as a reporter of circadian gene expression in cyanobacteria. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1993 Jun 6/15/1993; 90(12): 5672-6. PMID: 8516317, PMCID: PMC46783, ISSN: 0027-8424.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8516317.
  • Johnson CH, Kondo T. Light pulses induce "singular" behavior and shorten the period of the circadian phototaxis rhythm in the CW15 strain of Chlamydomonas. J. Biol. Rhythms. 1992; 7(4): 313-27. PMID: 1286203, ISSN: 0748-7304.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1286203.
  • Johnson CH, Kondo T, Hastings JW. Action Spectrum for Resetting the Circadian Phototaxis Rhythm in the CW15 Strain of Chlamydomonas: II. Illuminated Cells. Plant Physiol. 1991 Nov; 97(3): 1122-9. PMID: 16668498, PMCID: PMC1081131, ISSN: 0032-0889.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16668498.
  • Kondo T, Johnson CH, Hastings JW. Action Spectrum for Resetting the Circadian Phototaxis Rhythm in the CW15 Strain of Chlamydomonas: I. Cells in Darkness. Plant Physiol. 1991 Jan; 95(1): 197-205. PMID: 16667951, PMCID: PMC1077506, ISSN: 0032-0889.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16667951.
  • Johnson CH, Nakashima H. Cycloheximide inhibits light-induced phase shifting of the circadian clock in Neurospora. J. Biol. Rhythms. 1990; 5(2): 159-67. PMID: 2133125, ISSN: 0748-7304.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2133125.
  • Broda H, Johnson CH, Taylor WR, Hastings JW. Temperature dependence of phase response curves for drug-induced phase shifts. J. Biol. Rhythms. 1989; 4(3): 327-33. PMID: 2519597, ISSN: 0748-7304.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2519597.
  • Johnson CH, Hastings JW. Circadian phototransduction: phase resetting and frequency of the circadian clock of Gonyaulax cells in red light. J. Biol. Rhythms. 1989; 4(4): 417-37. PMID: 2519604, ISSN: 0748-7304.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2519604.
  • Johnson CH, Miwa I, Kondo T, Hastings JW. Circadian rhythm of photoaccumulation in Paramecium bursaria. J. Biol. Rhythms. 1989; 4(4): 405-15. PMID: 2519603, ISSN: 0748-7304.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2519603.
  • Nicolas MT, Nicolas G, Johnson CH, Bassot JM, Hastings JW. Characterization of the bioluminescent organelles in Gonyaulax polyedra (dinoflagellates) after fast-freeze fixation and antiluciferase immunogold staining. J. Cell Biol. 1987 Aug; 105(2): 723-35. PMID: 2442172, PMCID: PMC2114768, ISSN: 0021-9525.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2442172.
  • Olesiak W, Ungar A, Johnson CH, Hastings JW. Are protein synthesis inhibition and phase shifting of the circadian clock in Gonyaulax correlated?. J. Biol. Rhythms. 1987; 2(2): 121-38. PMID: 2979654, ISSN: 0748-7304.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2979654.
  • Nicolas MT, Johnson CH, Bassot JM, Hastings JW. Immunogold labeling of organelles in the bioluminescent dinoflagellate Gonyaulax polyedra with anti-luciferase antibody. Cell Biol. Int. Rep. 1985 Sep; 9(9): 797-802. PMID: 3899376, ISSN: 0309-1651.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3899376.
  • Johnson CH, Inoué S, Flint A, Hastings JW. Compartmentalization of algal bioluminescence: autofluorescence of bioluminescent particles in the dinoflagellate Gonyaulax as studied with image-intensified video microscopy and flow cytometry. J. Cell Biol. 1985 May; 100(5): 1435-46. PMID: 4039325, PMCID: PMC2113859, ISSN: 0021-9525.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4039325.