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George X.  Ding

George X. Ding, Ph.D., FCCPM, FAAPM

Professor of Radiation Oncology
Interim Chief Physicist
Interim Director of Medical Physics
Medical Physicist

Contact Information:

Vanderbilt, Department of Radiation Oncology
Preston Research Building, B1003
1301 22nd Ave. South
Nashville, TN 37232-5671
615-322-2555
Fax: 615-322-0161

Profile

Dr. George Ding is a Professor, Interim Chief Physicist and ,Interim Director of Medical Physics in the Department of Radiation Oncology. 

The goal of his work and research is to improve the therapeutic index - to enhance the tumor control while minimizing the toxicity of the treatment to critical normal tissues by using and developing state-of-the-art treatment techniques to improve accuracy and precision of radiotherapy. His research interests include: accurate patient treatment planning, accurate dose calibration for radiation beams, quality assurance (QA) in reference dosimetry and patient treatment planning systems, Image Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT), adaptive radiotherapy, stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), reducing imaging guidance dose to patients, application of highly accurate Monte Carlo techniques in patient dose calculations, small-field dosimetry, developing new treatment delivery techniques using electrons and photon beams, developing accurate and practical dose calculation algorithms for low energy photon beams.

Dr. Ding is an expert in radiation dosimetry and application of Monte Carlo techniques in radiotherapy. His earlier work is at the heart of the Monte Carlo user code, BEAM, used throughout the world for simulation of radiation beams produced by medical accelerators. His work on water-to-air stopping-power ratios provides important dosimetric data for radiotherapy reference dose calibration. This new understanding led to a new reference depth for more accurate electron beam reference dose calibration. Both recent American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) dosimetry protocol TG-51 and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) TRS 398 protocol adopted the new reference depth for electron beam calibration. He pioneered a series of studies on the use of Monte Carlo techniques to estimate radiation exposure for patients who undergo image-guidance procedures using kilovoltage Cone Beam CT.

Dr. Ding has supervised over a dozen MSc, PhD students and residents, served as an External Examiner for many PhD Theses in different countries, served as a reviewer for 14 peer-reviewed journals, as well as an external reviewer for book proposals.  He has served as a research grant reviewer for the National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Ontario Research Fund, and many other government, university, and private funding sources. He has served as PI and Co-PI of research projects funded by external agencies, including NIH, universities and commercial companies. 

Dr. Ding has been an invited speaker to international and national presentations. He has authored over 50 peer review articles, 5 book chapters, and over 100 published abstracts and presentations, many of those as first or senior author.

He currently serves on the committee of The National Academies on Research Directions in Human Biological Effects of Low Level Ionizing Radiation; chairs AAPM Task Group report-180; serves on the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report Committee; the AAPM Therapy Physics Committee, the AAPM Calibration Laboratory Accreditation Executive Committee, and the AAPM Biological Effects Subcommittee addressing biological effects of radiation therapy. 

Dr. Ding earned a Ph.D. in radiation physics from Carleton University and the National Research Council of Canada. He is a Fellow of the Canadian College of Physicists in Medicine (FCCPM) and a Fellow of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (FAAPM). 

Publications
  • Nelson AP, Ding GX. An alternative approach to account for patient organ doses from imaging guidance procedures. Radiother Oncol [print-electronic]. 2014 Jul; 112(1): 112-8. PMID: 25023041, PII: S0167-8140(14)00265-5, DOI: 10.1016/j.radonc.2014.05.019, ISSN: 1879-0887.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25023041.
  • Pawlowski JM, Ding GX. An algorithm for kilovoltage x-ray dose calculations with applications in kV-CBCT scans and 2D planar projected radiographs. Phys Med Biol [print-electronic]. 2014 Apr 4/21/2014; 59(8): 2041-58. PMID: 24694756, DOI: 10.1088/0031-9155/59/8/2041, ISSN: 1361-6560.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24694756.
  • Hadley A, Ding GX. A single-gradient junction technique to replace multiple-junction shifts for craniospinal irradiation treatment. Med Dosim [print-electronic]. 2014; 39(4): 314-9. PMID: 24913466, PII: S0958-3947(14)00063-6, DOI: 10.1016/j.meddos.2014.05.004, ISSN: 1873-4022.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24913466.
  • Ding GX, Malcolm AW. An optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter for measuring patient exposure from imaging guidance procedures. Phys Med Biol [print-electronic]. 2013 Sep 9/7/2013; 58(17): 5885-97. PMID: 23920245, DOI: 10.1088/0031-9155/58/17/5885, ISSN: 1361-6560.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23920245.
  • Ding GX, Krauss R. An empirical formula to obtain tissue-phantom ratios from percentage depth-dose curves for small fields. Phys Med Biol [print-electronic]. 2013 Jul 7/21/2013; 58(14): 4781-9. PMID: 23787215, DOI: 10.1088/0031-9155/58/14/4781, ISSN: 1361-6560.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23787215.
  • Ding GX, Munro P. Radiation exposure to patients from image guidance procedures and techniques to reduce the imaging dose. Radiother Oncol [print-electronic]. 2013 Jul; 108(1): 91-8. PMID: 23830468, PII: S0167-8140(13)00276-4, DOI: 10.1016/j.radonc.2013.05.034, ISSN: 1879-0887.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23830468.
  • Ding GX, Ding F. Beam characteristics and stopping-power ratios of small radiosurgery photon beams. Phys Med Biol [print-electronic]. 2012 Sep 9/7/2012; 57(17): 5509-21. PMID: 22872136, DOI: 10.1088/0031-9155/57/17/5509, ISSN: 1361-6560.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22872136.
  • Deeley MA, Chen A, Datteri R, Noble JH, Cmelak AJ, Donnelly EF, Malcolm AW, Moretti L, Jaboin J, Niermann K, Yang ES, Yu DS, Yei F, Koyama T, Ding GX, Dawant BM. Comparison of manual and automatic segmentation methods for brain structures in the presence of space-occupying lesions: a multi-expert study. Phys Med Biol [print-electronic]. 2011 Jul 7/21/2011; 56(14): 4557-77. PMID: 21725140, PMCID: PMC3153124, PII: S0031-9155(11)85448-5, DOI: 10.1088/0031-9155/56/14/021, ISSN: 1361-6560.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21725140.
  • Pawlowski JM, Ding GX. A new approach to account for the medium-dependent effect in model-based dose calculations for kilovoltage x-rays. Phys Med Biol [print-electronic]. 2011 Jul 7/7/2011; 56(13): 3919-34. PMID: 21654040, PII: S0031-9155(11)80609-3, DOI: 10.1088/0031-9155/56/13/011, ISSN: 1361-6560.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21654040.
  • Morales-Paliza MA, Coffey CW, Ding GX. Evaluation of the dynamic conformal arc therapy in comparison to intensity-modulated radiation therapy in prostate, brain, head-and-neck and spine tumors. J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2011; 12(2): 3197. PMID: 21587165, ISSN: 1526-9914.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21587165.
  • Ding GX, Munro P, Pawlowski J, Malcolm A, Coffey CW. Reducing radiation exposure to patients from kV-CBCT imaging. Radiother Oncol [print-electronic]. 2010 Dec; 97(3): 585-92. PMID: 20846736, PII: S0167-8140(10)00468-8, DOI: 10.1016/j.radonc.2010.08.005, ISSN: 1879-0887.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20846736.
  • Ding GX, Coffey CW. Beam characteristics and radiation output of a kilovoltage cone-beam CT. Phys Med Biol [print-electronic]. 2010 Sep 9/7/2010; 55(17): 5231-48. PMID: 20714042, PII: S0031-9155(10)51181-3, DOI: 10.1088/0031-9155/55/17/022, ISSN: 1361-6560.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20714042.
  • Ding GX, Coffey CW. Dosimetric evaluation of the OneDoseTM MOSFET for measuring kilovoltage imaging dose from image-guided radiotherapy procedures. Med Phys. 2010 Sep; 37(9): 4880-5. PMID: 20964206, ISSN: 0094-2405.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20964206.
  • Pawlowski JM, Yang ES, Malcolm AW, Coffey CW, Ding GX. Reduction of dose delivered to organs at risk in prostate cancer patients via image-guided radiation therapy. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys [print-electronic]. 2010 Mar 3/1/2010; 76(3): 924-34. PMID: 20004528, PII: S0360-3016(09)02721-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.06.068, ISSN: 1879-355X.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20004528.
  • Alaei P, Ding G, Guan H. Inclusion of the dose from kilovoltage cone beam CT in the radiation therapy treatment plans. Med Phys. 2010 Jan; 37(1): 244-8. PMID: 20175487, ISSN: 0094-2405.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20175487.
  • Walters BR, Ding GX, Kramer R, Kawrakow I. Skeletal dosimetry in cone beam computed tomography. Med Phys. 2009 Jul; 36(7): 2915-22. PMID: 19673190, ISSN: 0094-2405.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19673190.
  • Ding GX, Coffey CW. Radiation dose from kilovoltage cone beam computed tomography in an image-guided radiotherapy procedure. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 2009 Feb 2/1/2009; 73(2): 610-7. PMID: 19147025, PII: S0360-3016(08)03562-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2008.10.006, ISSN: 1879-355X.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19147025.
  • Ding GX, Pawlowski JM, Coffey CW. A correction-based dose calculation algorithm for kilovoltage x rays [letter]. Med Phys. 2008 Dec; 35(12): 5312-6. PMID: 19175090, ISSN: 0094-2405.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19175090.
  • Ding GX, Duggan DM, Coffey CW. A theoretical approach for non-equilibrium radiation dosimetry. Phys Med Biol [print-electronic]. 2008 Jul 7/7/2008; 53(13): 3493-9. PMID: 18552420, PII: S0031-9155(08)73917-4, DOI: 10.1088/0031-9155/53/13/006, ISSN: 0031-9155.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18552420.
  • Ding GX, Duggan DM, Coffey CW. Accurate patient dosimetry of kilovoltage cone-beam CT in radiation therapy. Med Phys. 2008 Mar; 35(3): 1135-44. PMID: 18404948, ISSN: 0094-2405.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18404948.
  • Das IJ, Ding GX, Ahnesj√∂ A. Small fields: nonequilibrium radiation dosimetry. Med Phys. 2008 Jan; 35(1): 206-15. PMID: 18293576, ISSN: 0094-2405.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18293576.
  • Ding GX, Duggan DM, Coffey CW, Deeley M, Hallahan DE, Cmelak A, Malcolm A. A study on adaptive IMRT treatment planning using kV cone-beam CT. Radiother Oncol [print-electronic]. 2007 Oct; 85(1): 116-25. PMID: 17707938, PII: S0167-8140(07)00322-2, DOI: 10.1016/j.radonc.2007.06.015, ISSN: 0167-8140.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17707938.
  • Ding GX, Duggan DM, Coffey CW. Comment on "Testing of the analytical anisotropic algorithm for photon dose calculation" [Med. Phys. 33, 4130-4148 (2006)] [letter]. Med Phys. 2007 Aug; 34(8): 3414. PMID: 17879803, ISSN: 0094-2405.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17879803.
  • Ding GX, Duggan DM, Lu B, Hallahan DE, Cmelak A, Malcolm A, Newton J, Deeley M, Coffey CW. Impact of inhomogeneity corrections on dose coverage in the treatment of lung cancer using stereotactic body radiation therapy. Med Phys. 2007 Jul; 34(7): 2985-94. PMID: 17822007, ISSN: 0094-2405.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17822007.
  • Duggan DM, Ding GX, Coffey CW, Kirby W, Hallahan DE, Malcolm A, Lu B. Deep-inspiration breath-hold kilovoltage cone-beam CT for setup of stereotactic body radiation therapy for lung tumors: initial experience. Lung Cancer [print-electronic]. 2007 Apr; 56(1): 77-88. PMID: 17169461, PII: S0169-5002(06)00612-X, DOI: 10.1016/j.lungcan.2006.11.012, ISSN: 0169-5002.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17169461.
  • Ding GX, Duggan DM, Coffey CW. Characteristics of kilovoltage x-ray beams used for cone-beam computed tomography in radiation therapy. Phys Med Biol [print-electronic]. 2007 Mar 3/21/2007; 52(6): 1595-615. PMID: 17327651, PII: S0031-9155(07)36121-6, DOI: 10.1088/0031-9155/52/6/004, ISSN: 0031-9155.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17327651.
  • Ding GX, Duggan DM, Coffey CW, Shokrani P, Cygler JE. First macro Monte Carlo based commercial dose calculation module for electron beam treatment planning--new issues for clinical consideration. Phys Med Biol [print-electronic]. 2006 Jun 6/7/2006; 51(11): 2781-99. PMID: 16723766, PII: S0031-9155(06)16909-2, DOI: 10.1088/0031-9155/51/11/007, ISSN: 0031-9155.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16723766.
  • Ding GX, Duggan DM, Coffey CW. Commissioning stereotactic radiosurgery beams using both experimental and theoretical methods. Phys Med Biol [print-electronic]. 2006 May 5/21/2006; 51(10): 2549-66. PMID: 16675869, PII: S0031-9155(06)08454-5, DOI: 10.1088/0031-9155/51/10/013, ISSN: 0031-9155.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16675869.
  • Ding GX, Cygler JE, Yu CW, Kalach NI, Daskalov G. A comparison of electron beam dose calculation accuracy between treatment planning systems using either a pencil beam or a Monte Carlo algorithm. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 2005 Oct 10/1/2005; 63(2): 622-33. PMID: 16168854, PII: S0360-3016(05)01124-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2005.06.016, ISSN: 0360-3016.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16168854.
  • Ding GX. An investigation of accelerator head scatter and output factor in air. Med Phys. 2004 Sep; 31(9): 2527-33. PMID: 15487734, ISSN: 0094-2405.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15487734.
  • Cygler JE, Daskalov GM, Chan GH, Ding GX. Evaluation of the first commercial Monte Carlo dose calculation engine for electron beam treatment planning. Med Phys. 2004 Jan; 31(1): 142-53. PMID: 14761030, ISSN: 0094-2405.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14761030.
  • Ding GX. Using Monte Carlo simulations to commission photon beam output factors--a feasibility study. Phys Med Biol. 2003 Dec 12/7/2003; 48(23): 3865-74. PMID: 14703163, ISSN: 0031-9155.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14703163.
  • Ding GX. Dose discrepancies between Monte Carlo calculations and measurements in the buildup region for a high-energy photon beam. Med Phys. 2002 Nov; 29(11): 2459-63. PMID: 12462709, ISSN: 0094-2405.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12462709.
  • Ding GX, Duzenli C, Kalach NI. Are neutrons responsible for the dose discrepancies between Monte Carlo calculations and measurements in the build-up region for a high-energy photon beam?. Phys Med Biol. 2002 Sep 9/7/2002; 47(17): 3251-61. PMID: 12361221, ISSN: 0031-9155.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12361221.
  • Ding GX. Energy spectra, angular spread, fluence profiles and dose distributions of 6 and 18 MV photon beams: results of monte carlo simulations for a varian 2100EX accelerator. Phys Med Biol. 2002 Apr 4/7/2002; 47(7): 1025-46. PMID: 11996053, ISSN: 0031-9155.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11996053.
  • Ding GX, Yu CW. A study on beams passing through hip prosthesis for pelvic radiation treatment. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 2001 Nov 11/15/2001; 51(4): 1167-75. PMID: 11704342, PII: S0360-3016(01)02592-5, ISSN: 0360-3016.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11704342.
  • Ding GX, Yu CW. Determination of percentage depth-dose curves for electron beams using different types of detectors. Med Phys. 2001 Mar; 28(3): 298-302. PMID: 11318309, ISSN: 0094-2405.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11318309.
  • Ding GX, Cygler JE, Kwok CB. Clinical reference dosimetry: comparison between AAPM TG-21 and TG-51 protocols. Med Phys. 2000 Jun; 27(6): 1217-25. PMID: 10902550, ISSN: 0094-2405.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10902550.
  • Ding GX, Cygler JE, Zhang GG, Yu MK. Evaluation of a commercial three-dimensional electron beam treatment planning system. Med Phys. 1999 Dec; 26(12): 2571-80. PMID: 10619241, ISSN: 0094-2405.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10619241.
  • Ding GX, Cygler JE. Measurement of Prepl Pwall factors in electron beams and in a 60Co beam for plane-parallel chambers. Med Phys. 1998 Aug; 25(8): 1453-7. PMID: 9725133, ISSN: 0094-2405.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9725133.
  • Ding GX, Cygler JE. Measurements of electron beam peak scatter factors. Med Phys. 1998 Feb; 25(2): 251-3. PMID: 9507489, ISSN: 0094-2405.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9507489.
  • Cygler J, Li XA, Ding GX, Lawrence E. Practical approach to electron beam dosimetry at extended SSD. Phys Med Biol. 1997 Aug; 42(8): 1505-14. PMID: 9279902, ISSN: 0031-9155.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9279902.
  • Ding GX, Rogers DW, Cygler JE, Mackie TR. Electron fluence correction factors for conversion of dose in plastic to dose in water. Med Phys. 1997 Feb; 24(2): 161-76. PMID: 9048356, ISSN: 0094-2405.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9048356.
  • Cygler J, Ding GX, Kendal W, Cross P. Fetal dose for a patient undergoing mantle field irradiation for Hodgkin's disease. Med Dosim. 1997; 22(2): 135-7. PMID: 9243468, ISSN: 0958-3947.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9243468.
  • Burns DT, Ding GX, Rogers DW. R50 as a beam quality specifier for selecting stopping-power ratios and reference depths for electron dosimetry. Med Phys. 1996 Mar; 23(3): 383-8. PMID: 8815381, ISSN: 0094-2405.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8815381.
  • Ding GX, Rogers DW. Mean energy, energy-range relationships and depth-scaling factors for clinical electron beams. Med Phys. 1996 Mar; 23(3): 361-76. PMID: 8815379, ISSN: 0094-2405.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8815379.
  • Ding GX, Rogers DW, Mackie TR. Calculation of stopping-power ratios using realistic clinical electron beams. Med Phys. 1995 May; 22(5): 489-501. PMID: 7643785, ISSN: 0094-2405.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7643785.
  • Rogers DW, Faddegon BA, Ding GX, Ma CM, We J, Mackie TR. BEAM: a Monte Carlo code to simulate radiotherapy treatment units. Med Phys. 1995 May; 22(5): 503-24. PMID: 7643786, ISSN: 0094-2405.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7643786.
  • Ding GX, Shalev S, Gluchev G. A rho-theta technique for treatment verification in radiotherapy and its clinical applications. Med Phys. 1993 Jul; 20(4): 1135-43. PMID: 8413023, ISSN: 0094-2405.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8413023.