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Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer CenterVanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center

 

Heidi Hamm, Ph.D.

Aileen M. Lange and Annie Mary Lyle Chair in Cardiovascular Research
Professor of Pharmacology, Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences, Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation
Researcher

Contact Information:

Vanderbilt University Medical Center
442A Robinson Research Building
Nashville, 37232-6600
615-343-3533

Research Description

My work is focused on understanding the molecular basis of signaling mechanisms mediated by G proteins, which are switch proteins. G proteins are normally inactive, but a receptor that has received a specific signal can activate G proteins, leading to changes in the activity of enzymes that produce second messengers such as cyclic AMP and calcium.

The resulting changes in cellular activity underlie a large number of physiological processes. G protein-mediated signalling cascades are key regulators of many physiological processes, including processes of development, differentiation, and regulation of cell division. In the brain, many key neurotransmitters and neuromodulators mediate a myriad of functions by activation of such G protein cascades.

The research in my laboratory is aimed at understanding how G proteins become activated by receptors, how they in turn activate effector enzymes, and how they turn off. We determined the sites of interaction between proteins using a method of decomposing the proteins into small synthetic peptides and determining which peptides blocked interaction sites (Hamm et al., 1988; Rarick et al., 1992; Artemyev et al., 1993; Arshavsky et al., 1994). To understand the process more fully, we determined the atomic structure of the proteins in collaboration with the group of Paul Sigler. We used X-ray crystallography to solve the three-dimensional structures of G proteins in their inactive (GDP bound, (Lambright et al., 1994) and activated (GTPbgS-bound) forms (Noel et al., 1993). We caught a glimpse of the self-inactivating process in another crystal form, the transition state analog, Ga.GDP.AlF4- (Sondek et al., 1994). More recently, the structures of the bg subunit (Sondek et al., 1996) and the heterotrimeric G protein (Lambright et al., 1996) were solved. These high-resolution structural studies allowed us to postulate specific hypotheses regarding mechanisms of receptor:G protein interaction and activation, G protein subunit association-dissociation and effector activation.

Publications
  • Hamm HE, Kaya AI, Gilbert JA, Preininger AM. Linking receptor activation to changes in Sw I and II of Ga proteins. J. Struct. Biol [print-electronic]. 2013 Oct; 184(1): 63-74. PMID: 23466875, PMCID: PMC3726552, PII: S1047-8477(13)00053-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.jsb.2013.02.016, ISSN: 1095-8657.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23466875.
  • Preininger AM, Meiler J, Hamm HE. Conformational flexibility and structural dynamics in GPCR-mediated G protein activation: a perspective. J. Mol. Biol [print-electronic]. 2013 Jul 7/10/2013; 425(13): 2288-98. PMID: 23602809, PMCID: PMC3686903, PII: S0022-2836(13)00242-8, DOI: 10.1016/j.jmb.2013.04.011, ISSN: 1089-8638.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23602809.
  • Li X, Roszko I, Sepich DS, Ni M, Hamm HE, Marlow FL, Solnica-Krezel L. Gpr125 modulates Dishevelled distribution and planar cell polarity signaling. Development. 2013 Jul; 140(14): 3028-39. PMID: 23821037, PMCID: PMC3699285, PII: 140/14/3028, DOI: 10.1242/dev.094839, ISSN: 1477-9129.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23821037.
  • Duvernay M, Young S, Gailani D, Schoenecker J, Hamm HE. Protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1 and PAR4 differentially regulate factor V expression from human platelets. Mol. Pharmacol [print-electronic]. 2013 Apr; 83(4): 781-92. PMID: 23307185, PMCID: PMC3608438, PII: mol.112.083477, DOI: 10.1124/mol.112.083477, ISSN: 1521-0111.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23307185.
  • Natarajan C, Hata AN, Hamm HE, Zent R, Breyer RM. Extracellular loop II modulates GTP sensitivity of the prostaglandin EP3 receptor. Mol. Pharmacol [print-electronic]. 2013 Jan; 83(1): 206-16. PMID: 23087260, PMCID: PMC3533480, PII: mol.112.080473, DOI: 10.1124/mol.112.080473, ISSN: 1521-0111.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23087260.
  • Young SE, Duvernay MT, Schulte ML, Lindsley CW, Hamm HE. Synthesis of indole derived protease-activated receptor 4 antagonists and characterization in human platelets. PLoS ONE [electronic-print]. 2013; 8(6): e65528. PMID: 23776495, PMCID: PMC3679140, PII: PONE-D-13-05376, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065528, ISSN: 1932-6203.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23776495.
  • Wells CA, Zurawski Z, Betke KM, Yim YY, Hyde K, Rodriguez S, Alford S, Hamm HE. Gß¿ inhibits exocytosis via interaction with critical residues on soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein-25. Mol. Pharmacol [print-electronic]. 2012 Dec; 82(6): 1136-49. PMID: 22962332, PMCID: PMC3502621, PII: mol.112.080507, DOI: 10.1124/mol.112.080507, ISSN: 1521-0111.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22962332.
  • Ichikawa J, Cole HA, Magnussen RA, Mignemi NA, Butler M, Holt GE, O'Rear L, Yuasa M, Pabla B, Haro H, Cates JM, Hamm HE, Schwartz HS, Schoenecker JG. Thrombin induces osteosarcoma growth, a function inhibited by low molecular weight heparin in vitro and in vivo: procoagulant nature of osteosarcoma. Cancer [print-electronic]. 2012 May 5/1/2012; 118(9): 2494-506. PMID: 21953059, DOI: 10.1002/cncr.26518, ISSN: 1097-0142.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21953059.
  • Preininger AM, Kaya AI, Gilbert JA, Busenlehner LS, Armstrong RN, Hamm HE. Myristoylation exerts direct and allosteric effects on Ga conformation and dynamics in solution. Biochemistry [print-electronic]. 2012 Mar 3/6/2012; 51(9): 1911-24. PMID: 22329346, PMCID: PMC3312377, DOI: 10.1021/bi201472c, ISSN: 1520-4995.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22329346.
  • Betke KM, Wells CA, Hamm HE. GPCR mediated regulation of synaptic transmission. Prog. Neurobiol [print-electronic]. 2012 Mar; 96(3): 304-21. PMID: 22307060, PMCID: PMC3319362, PII: S0301-0082(12)00010-X, DOI: 10.1016/j.pneurobio.2012.01.009, ISSN: 1873-5118.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22307060.
  • Wells CA, Betke KM, Lindsley CW, Hamm HE. Label-free detection of G protein-SNARE interactions and screening for small molecule modulators. ACS Chem Neurosci. 2012 Jan 1/18/2012; 3(1): 69-78. PMID: 22368765, PMCID: PMC3285104, DOI: 10.1021/cn200102d, ISSN: 1948-7193.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22368765.
  • Thaker TM, Kaya AI, Preininger AM, Hamm HE, Iverson TM. Allosteric mechanisms of G protein-Coupled Receptor signaling: a structural perspective. Methods Mol. Biol. 2012; 796: 133-74. PMID: 22052489, PMCID: PMC3549666, DOI: 10.1007/978-1-61779-334-9_8, ISSN: 1940-6029.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22052489.
  • Kaya AI, Thaker TM, Preininger AM, Iverson TM, Hamm HE. Coupling efficiency of rhodopsin and transducin in bicelles. Biochemistry [print-electronic]. 2011 Apr 4/19/2011; 50(15): 3193-203. PMID: 21375271, PMCID: PMC3119548, DOI: 10.1021/bi200037j, ISSN: 1520-4995.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21375271.
  • Lenoci L, Duvernay M, Satchell S, DiBenedetto E, Hamm HE. Mathematical model of PAR1-mediated activation of human platelets. Mol Biosyst [print-electronic]. 2011 Apr; 7(4): 1129-37. PMID: 21229145, DOI: 10.1039/c0mb00250j, ISSN: 1742-2051.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21229145.
  • Caruso G, Bisegna P, Andreucci D, Lenoci L, Gurevich VV, Hamm HE, DiBenedetto E. Identification of key factors that reduce the variability of the single photon response. PNAS USA. 2011; 108((19)): 7804-7.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21518901.
  • Holinstat M, Boutaud O, Apopa PL, Vesci J, Bala M, Oates JA, Hamm HE. Protease-activated receptor signaling in platelets activates cytosolic phospholipase A2α differently for cyclooxygenase-1 and 12-lipoxygenase catalysis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2011; 31((2)): 435-42.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21127289.
  • Van Eps, N, AM Preininger, N Alexander, AI Kaya, S Meier, J Meiler, HE Hamm, WL Hubbell. Interaction of a G protein with an activated receptor opens the interdomain interface in the alpha subunit. PNAS USA. 2011; 108((23)): 9420-4.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21606326.
  • Shen L, Caruso G, Bisegna P, Andreucci D, Gurevich VV, Hamm HE, DiBenedetto E. Dynamics of mouse rod phototransduction and its sensitivity to variation of key parameters. IET Syst Biol. 2010 Jan; 4(1): 12-32. PMID: 20001089, PMCID: PMC3833298, DOI: 10.1049/iet-syb.2008.0154, ISSN: 1751-8849.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20001089.
  • Caruso G, Bisegna P, Lenoci L, Andreucci D, Gurevich VV, Hamm HE, DiBenedetto E. Kinetics of rhodopsin deactivation and its role in regulating recovery and reproducibility of rod photoresponse. PLoS Comput Biol. 2010; 6((12)): e1001031.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21200415.
  • Jernigan KK, Cselenyi CS, Thorne CA, Hanson AJ, Tahinci E, Hajicek N, Oldham WM, Lee LA, Hamm HE, Hepler JR, Kozasa T, Linder ME, Lee E. Gbetagamma activates GSK3 to promote LRP6-mediated beta-catenin transcriptional activity. Sci Signal. 2010; 3(121): ra37. PMID: 20460648, PMCID: PMC3088111, PII: 3/121/ra37, DOI: 10.1126/scisignal.2000647, ISSN: 1937-9145.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20460648.
  • Marjoram RJ, Voss B, Pan Y, Dickeson SK, Zutter MM, Hamm HE, Santoro SA. Suboptimal activation of protease-activated receptors enhances alpha2beta1 integrin-mediated platelet adhesion to collagen. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2009 Dec 12/11/2009; 284(50): 34640-7. PMID: 19815553, PMCID: PMC2787326, PII: M109.020990, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M109.020990, ISSN: 1083-351X.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19815553.
  • Hamm HE, Meier SM, Liao G, Preininger AM. Trp fluorescence reveals an activation-dependent cation-pi interaction in the Switch II region of Galphai proteins. Protein Sci. 2009 Nov; 18(11): 2326-35. PMID: 19760664, PMCID: PMC2788287, DOI: 10.1002/pro.243, ISSN: 1469-896X.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19760664.
  • Holinstat M, Preininger AM, Milne SB, Hudson WJ, Brown HA, Hamm HE. Irreversible platelet activation requires protease-activated receptor 1-mediated signaling to phosphatidylinositol phosphates. Mol. Pharmacol [print-electronic]. 2009 Aug; 76(2): 301-13. PMID: 19483102, PMCID: PMC2713123, PII: mol.109.056622, DOI: 10.1124/mol.109.056622, ISSN: 1521-0111.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19483102.
  • Preininger AM, Funk MA, Oldham WM, Meier SM, Johnston CA, Adhikary S, Kimple AJ, Siderovski DP, Hamm HE, Iverson TM. Helix dipole movement and conformational variability contribute to allosteric GDP release in Galphai subunits. Biochemistry. 2009 Mar 3/31/2009; 48(12): 2630-42. PMID: 19222191, PMCID: PMC2736342, PII: 10.1021/bi801853a, DOI: 10.1021/bi801853a, ISSN: 1520-4995.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19222191.
  • Lin F, Chen S, Sepich DS, Panizzi JR, Clendenon SG, Marrs JA, Hamm HE, Solnica-Krezel L. Galpha12/13 regulate epiboly by inhibiting E-cadherin activity and modulating the actin cytoskeleton. J. Cell Biol. 2009 Mar 3/23/2009; 184(6): 909-21. PMID: 19307601, PMCID: PMC2664974, PII: jcb.200805148, DOI: 10.1083/jcb.200805148, ISSN: 1540-8140.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19307601.
  • Hamm HE, Meier SM, Liao G, Preininger AM. Trp fluorescence reveals an activation-dependent cation-pi interaction in the Switch II region of Galphai proteins. Protein Sci. 2009; 18((11)): 2326-35.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19760664?dopt=Abstract.
  • Lin F, Chen S, Sepich DS, Panizzi JR, Clendenon SG, Marrs JA, Hamm HE, Solnica-Krezel L. Galpha 12/13 regulate epiboly by inhibiting E-cadherin activity and modulating the actin cytoskeleton. J Cell Biol. 2009; 184((6)): 909-21.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19307601?dopt=Abstract.
  • Marjoram RJ, Voss B, Pan Y, Dickeson SK, Zutter MM, Hamm HE, and Santoro, SA. Suboptimal Activation of Protease-activated Receptors Enhances alpha2beta1 Integrin-mediated Platelet Adhesion to Collagen. J Biol Chem. 2009; 284((50)): 34640-7.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19815553?dopt=Abstract.
  • Mazzoni MR, Porchia F, Hamm HE. Proteolytic fragmentation for epitope mapping. Methods Mol Biol. 2009; 524: 77-86.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19377938?itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum&ordinalpos=1.
  • Preininger AM, Funk MA, Oldham WM, Meier SM, Johnston CA, Adhikary S, Kimple AJ, Siderovski DP, Hamm HE, Iverson TM. Helix dipole movement and conformational variability contribute to allosteric GDP release in Galphai subunits. Biochemistry. 2009; 48((12)): 2630-42.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19222191?dopt=Abstract.
  • Preininger, AM, Funk, MA, Oldham, WM, Meier, SM, Johnston, CA, Adhikary, S, Kimple, AJ, Siderovski, DP, Hamm, HE, Iverson, TM. Helix Dipole Movement and Conformational Variability Contribute to Allosteric GDP Release in Galphai Subunits. Biochemistry. 2009; 48((12)): 2630-42.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19222191.
  • Wen XH, Shen L, Brush RS, Michaud N, Al-Ubaidi MR, Gurevich VV, Hamm HE, Lem J, Dibenedetto E, Anderson RE, Makino CL. Overexpression of rhodopsin alters the structure and photoresponse of rod photoreceptors. Biophys J. 2009; 96((3)): 939-50.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19186132?itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum&ordinalpos=2.
  • Yoon EJ, Hamm HE, Currie KP. G protein betagamma subunits modulate the number and nature of exocytotic fusion events in adrenal chromaffin cells independent of calcium entry. J. Neurophysiol [print-electronic]. 2008 Nov; 100(5): 2929-39. PMID: 18815342, PMCID: PMC2585407, PII: 90839.2008, DOI: 10.1152/jn.90839.2008, ISSN: 0022-3077.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18815342.
  • Preininger AM, Parello J, Meier SM, Liao G, Hamm HE. Receptor-mediated changes at the myristoylated amino terminus of Galpha(il) proteins. Biochemistry [print-electronic]. 2008 Sep 9/30/2008; 47(39): 10281-93. PMID: 18771287, PMCID: PMC2751642, DOI: 10.1021/bi800741r, ISSN: 1520-4995.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18771287.
  • Chen S, Lin F, Shin ME, Wang F, Shen L, Hamm HE. RACK1 regulates directional cell migration by acting on G betagamma at the interface with its effectors PLC beta and PI3K gamma. Mol. Biol. Cell [print-electronic]. 2008 Sep; 19(9): 3909-22. PMID: 18596232, PMCID: PMC2526680, PII: E08-04-0433, DOI: 10.1091/mbc.E08-04-0433, ISSN: 1939-4586.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18596232.
  • Oldham WM, Hamm HE. Heterotrimeric G protein activation by G-protein-coupled receptors. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2008 Jan; 9(1): 60-71. PMID: 18043707, PII: nrm2299, DOI: 10.1038/nrm2299, ISSN: 1471-0080.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18043707.
  • Bisegna P, Caruso G, Andreucci D, Shen L, Gurevich VV, Hamm HE, DiBenedetto E. Diffusion of the second messengers in the cytoplasm acts as a variability suppressor of the single photon response in vertebrate phototransduction. Biophys J. 2008; 94((9)): 3363-83.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18400950?itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum&ordinalpos=2.
  • Chen S, Lin F, Shin ME, Wang F, Shen L, Hamm HE. RACK1 Regulates Directional Cell Migration by Acting on Gbetagamma at the Interface with Its Effectors PLCbeta and P13Kgamma. Mol Biol Cell. 2008; 19((9)): 3909-22.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18596232?itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum&ordinalpos=10.
  • Preininger AM, Parello J, Meier SM, Liao G, Hamm HE. Receptor-Mediated Changes at the Myristoylated Amino Terminus of Galpha(il) Proteins. Biochemistry. 2008; 47((39)): 10281-93.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18771287?dopt=Abstract.
  • Yoon, EJ, Hamm, HE, Currie, KP. G protein betagamma Subunits Modulate the Number and Nature of Exocytotic Fusion Events in Adrenal Chromaffin Cells Independent of Calcium Entry. J Neurophysiol. 2008; 100((5)): 2929-39.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18815342.
  • Yoon EJ, Gerachshenko T, Spiegelberg BD, Alford S, Hamm HE. Gbetagamma interferes with Ca2+-dependent binding of synaptotagmin to the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex. Mol. Pharmacol [print-electronic]. 2007 Nov; 72(5): 1210-9. PMID: 17715396, PII: mol.107.039446, DOI: 10.1124/mol.107.039446, ISSN: 0026-895X.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17715396.
  • Bilodeau ML, Hamm HE. Regulation of protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1 and PAR4 signaling in human platelets by compartmentalized cyclic nucleotide actions. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther [print-electronic]. 2007 Aug; 322(2): 778-88. PMID: 17525299, PII: jpet.107.121830, DOI: 10.1124/jpet.107.121830, ISSN: 0022-3565.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17525299.
  • Oldham WM, Van Eps N, Preininger AM, Hubbell WL, Hamm HE. Mapping allosteric connections from the receptor to the nucleotide-binding pocket of heterotrimeric G proteins. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A [print-electronic]. 2007 May 5/8/2007; 104(19): 7927-32. PMID: 17463080, PMCID: PMC1876549, PII: 0702623104, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0702623104, ISSN: 0027-8424.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17463080.
  • Voss B, McLaughlin JN, Holinstat M, Zent R, Hamm HE. PAR1, but not PAR4, activates human platelets through a Gi/o/phosphoinositide-3 kinase signaling axis. Mol. Pharmacol [print-electronic]. 2007 May; 71(5): 1399-406. PMID: 17303701, PII: mol.106.033365, DOI: 10.1124/mol.106.033365, ISSN: 0026-895X.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17303701.
  • Holinstat M, Voss B, Bilodeau ML, Hamm HE. Protease-activated receptors differentially regulate human platelet activation through a phosphatidic acid-dependent pathway. Mol. Pharmacol [print-electronic]. 2007 Mar; 71(3): 686-94. PMID: 17151288, PII: mol.106.029371, DOI: 10.1124/mol.106.029371, ISSN: 0026-895X.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17151288.
  • Huang K, Voss B, Kumar D, Hamm HE, Harth E. Dendritic molecular transporters provide control of delivery to intracellular compartments. Bioconjug. Chem [print-electronic]. 2007 Mar; 18(2): 403-9. PMID: 17284011, DOI: 10.1021/bc060287a, ISSN: 1043-1802.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17284011.
  • Spiegelberg BD, Hamm HE. Roles of G-protein-coupled receptor signaling in cancer biology and gene transcription. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev [print-electronic]. 2007 Feb; 17(1): 40-4. PMID: 17188489, PII: S0959-437X(06)00237-1, DOI: 10.1016/j.gde.2006.12.002, ISSN: 0959-437X.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17188489.
  • Oldham WM, Hamm HE. How do receptors activate G proteins?. Adv. Protein Chem. 2007; 74: 67-93. PMID: 17854655, PII: S0065-3233(07)74002-0, DOI: 10.1016/S0065-3233(07)74002-0, ISSN: 0065-3233.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17854655.
  • Oldham WM, Van Eps N, Preininger AM, Hubbell WL, Hamm HE. Mapping allosteric connections from the receptor to the nucleotide-binding pocket of heterotrimeric G proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2007; 104((19)): 7927-32.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17463080?dopt=Abstract.
  • Yoon EJ, Gerachshenko T, Spiegelberg BD, Alford S, Hamm HE. Gbetagamma Interferes with Ca2+-Dependent Binding of Synaptotagmin to the Soluble N-Ethylmaleimide-Sensitive Factor Attachment Protein Receptor (SNARE) Complex. Mol Pharmacol. 2007; 72((5)): 1210-9.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17715396?dopt=Abstract.
  • Chen S, Hamm HE. DEP domains: More than just membrane anchors. Dev. Cell. 2006 Oct; 11(4): 436-8. PMID: 17011483, PII: S1534-5807(06)00404-7, DOI: 10.1016/j.devcel.2006.09.011, ISSN: 1534-5807.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17011483.
  • Holinstat M, Voss B, Bilodeau ML, McLaughlin JN, Cleator J, Hamm HE. PAR4, but not PAR1, signals human platelet aggregation via Ca2+ mobilization and synergistic P2Y12 receptor activation. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2006 Sep 9/8/2006; 281(36): 26665-74. PMID: 16837456, PMCID: PMC3035573, PII: M602174200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M602174200, ISSN: 0021-9258.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16837456.
  • Oldham WM, Van Eps N, Preininger AM, Hubbell WL, Hamm HE. Mechanism of the receptor-catalyzed activation of heterotrimeric G proteins. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol [print-electronic]. 2006 Sep; 13(9): 772-7. PMID: 16892066, PII: nsmb1129, DOI: 10.1038/nsmb1129, ISSN: 1545-9993.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16892066.
  • Ding J, Guzman JN, Tkatch T, Chen S, Goldberg JA, Ebert PJ, Levitt P, Wilson CJ, Hamm HE, Surmeier DJ. RGS4-dependent attenuation of M4 autoreceptor function in striatal cholinergic interneurons following dopamine depletion. Nat. Neurosci [print-electronic]. 2006 Jun; 9(6): 832-42. PMID: 16699510, PII: nn1700, DOI: 10.1038/nn1700, ISSN: 1097-6256.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16699510.
  • Oldham WM, Hamm HE. Structural basis of function in heterotrimeric G proteins. Q. Rev. Biophys [print-electronic]. 2006 May; 39(2): 117-66. PMID: 16923326, PII: S0033583506004306, DOI: 10.1017/S0033583506004306, ISSN: 0033-5835.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16923326.
  • Bilodeau ML, Hamm HE. Endothelial nitric-oxide synthase reveals a new face in G protein signaling. Mol. Pharmacol [print-electronic]. 2006 Mar; 69(3): 677-9. PMID: 16377762, PII: mol.105.022038, DOI: 10.1124/mol.105.022038, ISSN: 0026-895X.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16377762.
  • Caruso G, Bisegna P, Shen L, Andreucci D, Hamm HE, DiBenedetto E. Modeling the role of incisures in vertebrate phototransduction. Biophys J. 2006; 91((4)): 1192-212.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16714347?dopt=Abstract.
  • Cleator JH, Zhu WQ, Vaughan DE, Hamm HE. Differential regulation of endothelial exocytosis of P-selectin and von Willebrand factor by protease-activated receptors and cAMP. Blood. 2006; 107((7)): 2736-44.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16332977?dopt=Abstract.
  • Georgoussi Z, Leontiadis L, Mazarakou G, Merkouris M, Hyde K, Hamm H. Selective interactions between G protein subunits and RGS4 with the C-terminal domains of the mu- and delta-opiod receptors regulate opioid receptor signaling. Cell Signal. 2006; 18((6)): 771-82.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16120478?dopt=Abstract.
  • Holinstat M, Oldham WM, Hamm HE. G-protein-coupled receptors: evolving views on physiological signalling: symposium on G-protein-coupled receptors: evolving concepts and new techniques. EMBO Rep. 2006; 7((9)): 866-9.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16906127?dopt=Abstract.
  • Murphy SC, Harrison T, Hamm HE, Lomasney JW, Mohandas N, Haldar K. Erythrocyte G protein as a novel target for malarial chemotherapy. PLoS Med. 2006; 3((12)): e528.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17194200?dopt=Abstract.
  • Photowala H, Blackmer T, Schwartz E, Hamm HE, Alford S. G protein betagamma-subunits activated by serotonin mediate presynaptic inhibition by regulating vesicle fusion properties. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2006; 103((11)): 4281-6.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16537522?dopt=Abstract.
  • Preininger AM, Henage LG, Oldham WM, Yoon EJ, Hamm HE, Brown HA. Direct Modulation of Phospholipase D Activity by Gbetagamma. Mol Pharmacol. 2006; 70((1)): 311-8.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16638972?dopt=Abstract.
  • Van Eps N, Oldham WM, Hamm HE, Hubbell WL. Structural and dynamical changes in an alpha-subunit of a heterotrimeric G protein along the activation pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2006; 103((44)): 16194-9.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17053066?dopt=Abstract.
  • Caruso G, Khanal H, Alexiades V, Rieke F, Hamm HE, DiBenedetto E. Mathematical and computational modelling of spatio-temporal signalling in rod phototransduction. Syst Biol (Stevenage). 2005 Sep; 152(3): 119-37. PMID: 16986276, ISSN: 1741-2471.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16986276.
  • McLaughlin JN, Shen L, Holinstat M, Brooks JD, Dibenedetto E, Hamm HE. Functional selectivity of G protein signaling by agonist peptides and thrombin for the protease-activated receptor-1. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2005 Jul 7/1/2005; 280(26): 25048-59. PMID: 15878870, PII: M414090200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M414090200, ISSN: 0021-9258.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15878870.
  • McLaughlin JN, Mazzoni MR, Cleator JH, Earls L, Perdigoto AL, Brooks JD, Muldowney JA, Vaughan DE, Hamm HE. Thrombin modulates the expression of a set of genes including thrombospondin-1 in human microvascular endothelial cells. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2005 Jun 6/10/2005; 280(23): 22172-80. PMID: 15817447, PII: M500721200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M500721200, ISSN: 0021-9258.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15817447.
  • Blackmer T, Larsen EC, Bartleson C, Kowalchyk JA, Yoon EJ, Preininger AM, Alford S, Hamm HE, Martin TF. G protein betagamma directly regulates SNARE protein fusion machinery for secretory granule exocytosis. Nat Neurosci. 2005; 8((4)): 421-5.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15778713?dopt=Abstract.
  • Chen S, Lin F, Hamm HE. RACK1 Binds to a Signal Transfer Region of Gbetagamma and Inhibits Phospholipase C beta2 activation. J Biol Chem. 2005; 280((39)): 33445-52.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16051595?dopt=Abstract.
  • Gerachshenko T, Blackmer T, Yoon EJ, Bartleson C, Hamm HE, Alford S. Gbetagamma acts at the C terminus of SNAP-25 to mediate presynaptic inhibition. Nat Neurosci. 2005; 8((5)): 597-605.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15834421?dopt=Abstract.
  • Lin F, Sepich DS, Chen S, Topczewski J, Yin C, Solnica-Krezel L, Hamm H. Essential roles of Galpha 12/13 signaling in distinct cell behaviors driving zebrafish convergence and extension gastrulation movements. J Cell Biol. 2005; 169((5)): 777-87.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15928205?dopt=Abstract.
  • Lukov GL, Hu T, McLaughlin JN, Hamm HE, Willardson BM. Phosducin-like protein acts as a molecular chaperone for G protein betagamma dimer assembly. EMBO J. 2005; 24((11)): 1965-75.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15889144?dopt=Abstract.
  • Spiegelberg BD, Hamm HE. Gbetagamma Binds Histone Deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) and Inhibits Its Transcriptional Co-repression Activity. J Biol Chem. 2005; 280((50)): 41769-76.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16221676?dopt=Abstract.
  • Chen S, Spiegelberg BD, Lin F, Dell EJ, Hamm HE. Interaction of Gbetagamma with RACK1 and other WD40 repeat proteins. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 2004 Aug; 37(2): 399-406. PMID: 15276010, PII: S0022282804001373, DOI: 10.1016/j.yjmcc.2004.04.019, ISSN: 0022-2828.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15276010.
  • Srinivasan C, Toon J, Amari L, Abukhdeir AM, Hamm H, Geraldes CF, Ho YK, Mota de Freitas D. Competition between lithium and magnesium ions for the G-protein transducin in the guanosine 5'-diphosphate bound conformation. J. Inorg. Biochem. 2004 May; 98(5): 691-701. PMID: 15134914, PII: S0162013404000054, DOI: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2003.12.023, ISSN: 0162-0134.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15134914.
  • Preininger AM, Hamm HE. G protein signaling: insights from new structures. Sci. STKE. 2004 Feb 2/3/2004; 2004(218): re3. PMID: 14762218, PII: stke.2182004re3, DOI: 10.1126/stke.2182004re3, ISSN: 1525-8882.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14762218.
  • Cabrera-Vera TM, Hernandez S, Earls LR, Medkova M, Sundgren-Andersson AK, Surmeier DJ, Hamm HE. RGS9-2 modulates D2 dopamine receptor-mediated Ca2+ channel inhibition in rat striatal cholinergic interneurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2004; 16((46)): 16339-44.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15534226?dopt=Abstract.
  • Chen S, Dell EJ, Lin F, Sai J, Hamm HE. RACK1 Regulates Specific Functions of Gbetagamma. J Bio Chem. 2004; 279((17)): 17861-8.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14963031?dopt=Abstract.
  • Slessareva JE, Ma H, Depree KM, Flood LA, Bae H, Cabrera-Vera TM, Hamm HE, Graber SG. Closely related G-protein-coupled receptors use multiple and distinct domains on G-protein alpha-subunits for selective coupling. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2003 Dec 12/12/2003; 278(50): 50530-6. PMID: 14525988, PII: M304417200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M304417200, ISSN: 0021-9258.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14525988.
  • Cabrera-Vera TM, Vanhauwe J, Thomas TO, Medkova M, Preininger A, Mazzoni MR, Hamm HE. Insights into G protein structure, function, and regulation. Endocr. Rev. 2003 Dec; 24(6): 765-81. PMID: 14671004, DOI: 10.1210/er.2000-0026, ISSN: 0163-769X.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14671004.
  • Harrison T, Samuel BU, Akompong T, Hamm H, Mohandas N, Lomasney JW, Haldar K. Erythrocyte G protein-coupled receptor signaling in malarial infection. Science. 2003 Sep 9/19/2003; 301(5640): 1734-6. PMID: 14500986, PII: 301/5640/1734, DOI: 10.1126/science.1089324, ISSN: 1095-9203.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14500986.
  • Preininger AM, Van Eps N, Yu NJ, Medkova M, Hubbell WL, Hamm HE. The myristoylated amino terminus of Galpha(i)(1) plays a critical role in the structure and function of Galpha(i)(1) subunits in solution. Biochemistry. 2003 Jul 7/8/2003; 42(26): 7931-41. PMID: 12834345, DOI: 10.1021/bi0345438, ISSN: 0006-2960.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12834345.
  • Andreucci D, Bisegna P, Caruso G, Hamm HE, DiBenedetto E. Mathematical model of the spatio-temporal dynamics of second messengers in visual transduction. Biophys J. 2003; 85((3)): 1358-76.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12944255?itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum&ordinalpos=4.
  • Chen NF, Yu JZ, Skiba NP, Hamm HE, Rasenick MM. A Specific Domain of Gialpha Required for the Transactivation of Gialpha by Tubulin Is Implicated in the Organization of Cellular Microtubules. J Biol Chem. 2003; 278((17)): 15285-90.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12582171?itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum&ordinalpos=30.
  • Dell EJ, Connor J, Chen S, Stebbins EG, Skiba NP, Mochly-Rosen D, Hamm HE. The betagamma subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins interacts with RACK1 and two other WD repeat proteins. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2002 Dec 12/20/2002; 277(51): 49888-95. PMID: 12359736, PII: M202755200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M202755200, ISSN: 0021-9258.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12359736.
  • Medkova M, Preininger AM, Yu NJ, Hubbell WL, Hamm HE. Conformational changes in the amino-terminal helix of the G protein alpha(i1) following dissociation from Gbetagamma subunit and activation. Biochemistry. 2002 Aug 8/6/2002; 41(31): 9962-72. PMID: 12146960, PII: bi0255726, ISSN: 0006-2960.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12146960.
  • Mukherjee S, Gurevich VV, Preninger A, Hamm HE, Bader MF, Fazleabas AT, Birnbaumer L, Hunzicker-Dunn M. Aspartic acid 564 in the third cytoplasmic loop of the luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor is crucial for phosphorylation-independent interaction with arrestin2. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2002 May 5/17/2002; 277(20): 17916-27. PMID: 11867621, PII: M110479200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M110479200, ISSN: 0021-9258.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11867621.
  • Gilchrist A, Li A, Hamm HE. G alpha COOH-terminal minigene vectors dissect heterotrimeric G protein signaling. Sci. STKE. 2002 Feb 2/5/2002; 2002(118): pl1. PMID: 11836477, PII: 2002/118/pl1, DOI: 10.1126/stke.2002.118.pl1, ISSN: 1525-8882.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11836477.
  • Cabrera-Vera TM, Thomas TO, Vanhauwe J, Depree KM, Graber SG, Hamm HE. Dissecting receptor-G protein specificity using G alpha chimeras. Meth. Enzymol. 2002; 344: 69-81. PMID: 11771421, ISSN: 0076-6879.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11771421.
  • Dell EJ, Blackmer T, Skiba NP, Daaka Y, Shekter LR, Rosal R, Reuveny E, Hamm HE. Defining G protein beta gamma specificity for effector recognition. Meth. Enzymol. 2002; 344: 421-34. PMID: 11771401, ISSN: 0076-6879.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11771401.
  • Gilchrist A, Li A, Hamm HE. Design and use of C-terminal minigene vectors for studying role of heterotrimeric G proteins. Meth. Enzymol. 2002; 344: 58-69. PMID: 11771412, ISSN: 0076-6879.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11771412.
  • Schey KL, Busman M, Cook LA, Hamm HE, Hildebrandt JD. Structural characterization of intact G protein gamma subunits by mass spectrometry. Meth. Enzymol. 2002; 344: 586-97. PMID: 11771413, ISSN: 0076-6879.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11771413.
  • Vanhauwe JF, Thomas TO, Minshall RD, Tiruppathi C, Li A, Gilchrist A, Yoon EJ, Malik AB, Hamm HE. Thrombin Receptors Activate Go Proteins in Endothelial Cells to Regulate Intracellular Calcium and Cell Shape Changes. J Biol Chem. 2002; 277((37)): 34143-9.
    Available from: http://www.jbc.org/cgi/reprint/277/37/34143.pdf.
  • Gilchrist A, Vanhauwe JF, Li A, Thomas TO, Voyno-Yasenetskaya T, Hamm HE. G alpha minigenes expressing C-terminal peptides serve as specific inhibitors of thrombin-mediated endothelial activation. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2001 Jul 7/13/2001; 276(28): 25672-9. PMID: 11274183, PII: M100914200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M100914200, ISSN: 0021-9258.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11274183.
  • Blackmer T, Larsen EC, Takahashi M, Martin TF, Alford S, Hamm HE. G protein betagamma subunit-mediated presynaptic inhibition: regulation of exocytotic fusion downstream of Ca2+ entry. Science. 2001 Apr 4/13/2001; 292(5515): 293-7. PMID: 11303105, PII: 292/5515/293, DOI: 10.1126/science.1058803, ISSN: 0036-8075.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11303105.
  • Minadeo N, Layden B, Amari LV, Thomas V, Radloff K, Srinivasan C, Hamm HE, de Freitas DM. Effect of Li+ upon the Mg2+-dependent activation of recombinant Gialpha1. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 2001 Apr 4/1/2001; 388(1): 7-12. PMID: 11361143, PII: S0003986101922829, ISSN: 0003-9861.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11361143.
  • Aris L, Gilchrist A, Rens-Domiano S, Meyer C, Schatz PJ, Dratz EA, Hamm HE. Structural requirements for the stabilization of metarhodopsin II by the C terminus of the alpha subunit of transducin. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2001 Jan 1/26/2001; 276(4): 2333-9. PMID: 11018024, PII: M002533200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M002533200, ISSN: 0021-9258.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11018024.
  • Lopez I, Mak EC, Ding J, Hamm HE, Lomasney JW. A novel bifunctional phospholipase c that is regulated by Galpha 12 and stimulates the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. J. Biol. Chem [print-electronic]. 2001 Jan 1/26/2001; 276(4): 2758-65. PMID: 11022047, PII: M008119200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M008119200, ISSN: 0021-9258.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11022047.
  • Hamm HE. How activated receptors couple to G proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2001; 98((9)): 4819-21.
    Available from: http://www.pnas.org/cgi/reprint/98/9/4819.pdf.
  • Thomas TO, Hamm HE. An Intramolecular Contact in Galpha Transducin That Participates in Maintaining Its Intrinsic GDP Release Rate. Mol Cell Biol Res Commun. 2001; 4((5)): 282-91.
    Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MImg&_imagekey=B6WND-456JPM7-J-1&_cdi=6960&_orig=browse&_coverDate=09%2F30%2F2001&_sk=999959994&view=c&wchp=dGLbVzz-zSkWb&_acct=C000006878&_version=1&_userid=86629&md5=3b91bc0ba9504bca38920f9552b08498&ie=f.pdf.
  • Thulin CD, Savage JR, McLaughlin JN, Truscott SM, Old WM, Ahn NG, Resing KA, Hamm HE, Bitensky MW, nd Willardson BM. Modulation of the G Protein Regulator Phosducin by Ca 2+ /Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase II Phosphorylation and 14-3-3 Protein Binding. J Biol Chem. 2001; 276((26)): 23805-15.
    Available from: http://medschool1.mc.vanderbilt.edu/hammlab/pdf_files/JBiolChem2001Jun29.pdf.
  • Savage JR, McLaughlin JN, Skiba NP, Hamm HE, Willardson BM. Functional roles of the two domains of phosducin and phosducin-like protein. J. Biol. Chem. 2000 Sep 9/29/2000; 275(39): 30399-407. PMID: 10896945, PII: M005120200, DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M005120200, ISSN: 0021-9258.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10896945.
  • Mazzoni MR, Taddei S, Giusti L, Rovero P, Galoppini C, D'Ursi A, Albrizio S, Triolo A, Novellino E, Greco G, Lucacchini A, Hamm HE. A galpha(s) carboxyl-terminal peptide prevents G(s) activation by the A(2A) adenosine receptor. Mol. Pharmacol. 2000 Jul; 58(1): 226-36. PMID: 10860945, ISSN: 0026-895X.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10860945.
  • Gilchrist A, Li A, Hamm HE. Use of peptides-on-plasmids combinatorial library to identify high-affinity peptides that bind rhodopsin. Meth. Enzymol. 2000; 315: 388-404. PMID: 10736715, ISSN: 0076-6879.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10736715.
  • Minshall RD, Tiruppathi C, Vogel SM, Niles WD, Gilchrist A, Hamm HE, Malik AB. Endothelial Cell-surface gp60 Activates Vesicle Formation and Trafficking via Gi-coupled Src Kinase Signaling Pathway. J Cell Biol. 2000; 150((5)): 1057-70.
    Available from: http://medschool1.mc.vanderbilt.edu/hammlab/pdf_files/JBiolChem2000Sep4.pdf.
  • Skiba NP, Thomas TO, Hamm HE. G alpha t/G alpha i1 chimeras used to define structural basis of specific functions of G alpha t. Meth. Enzymol. 2000; 315: 502-24. PMID: 10736723, ISSN: 0076-6879.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10736723.
  • Yang CS, Skiba NP, Mazzoni MR, Thomas TO, Hamm HE. Fluorescent probes as indicators of conformation changes in transducin on activation. Meth. Enzymol. 2000; 315: 490-502. PMID: 10736722, ISSN: 0076-6879.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10736722.
  • Gilchrist A, Bünemann M, Li A, Hosey MM, Hamm HE. A dominant-negative strategy for studying roles of G proteins in vivo. J. Biol. Chem. 1999 Mar 3/5/1999; 274(10): 6610-6. PMID: 10037756, ISSN: 0021-9258.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10037756.
  • Bae H, Cabrera-Vera TM, Depree KM, Graber SG, Hamm HE. Two Amino Acids within the alpha4 Helix of Galpha(i)(1) mediate Coupling with 5-Hydroxytryptamine 1B Receptors. J Biol Chem. 1999; 274((21)): 14963-71.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10329698?itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum&ordinalpos=3.
  • Ellis CA, Malik AB, Gilchrist A, Hamm HE, Sandoval R, Voyno-Yasenetskaya T, Tiruppathi c. Thrombin Induces Proteinase-activated Receptor-1 Gene Expression in Endothelial Cells via Activation of Gi-linked Ras/ Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Pathway*. J Biol Chem. 1999; 274((19)): 13718-27.
    Available from: http://www.jbc.org/cgi/reprint/274/19/13718.pdf.
  • Skiba NP, Yang CS, Huang T, Bae H, Hamm HE. The alpha-Helical Domain of Galpha(t) Determines Specific Interaction with Regulator of G Protein Signaling 9. J Biol Chem. 1999; 274((13)): 8770-8.
    Available from: http://www.jbc.org/cgi/reprint/274/13/8770.pdf.
  • Yang CS, Skiba NP, Mazzoni MR, Hamm HE. Conformational Changes at The Carboxyl Terminus of Galpha Occur during G Protein Activation. J Biol Chem. 1999; 274((4)): 2379-85.
    Available from: http://www.jbc.org/cgi/reprint/274/4/2379.pdf.
  • Gilchrist A, Mazzoni MR, Dineen B, Dice A, Linden J, Proctor WR, Lupica CR, Dunwiddie TV, Hamm HE. Antagonists of the receptor-G protein interface block Gi-coupled signal transduction. J. Biol. Chem. 1998 Jun 6/12/1998; 273(24): 14912-9. PMID: 9614095, ISSN: 0021-9258.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9614095.
  • Ford CE, Skiba NP, Bae H, Daaka Y, Reuveny E, Shekter LR, Rosal R, Weng G, Yang CS, Iyengar R, Miller RJ, Jan LY, Lefkowitz RJ, Hamm HE. Molecular basis for interactions of G protein betagamma subunits with effectors. Science. 1998 May 5/22/1998; 280(5367): 1271-4. PMID: 9596582, ISSN: 0036-8075.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9596582.
  • Skiba NP, Hamm HE. How Gsalpha activates adenylyl cyclase. Nature structural biology. 1998 Feb; 5(2) Sect. 88,92.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9461067.
  • Hamm HE. The many faces of G protein signaling. J. Biol. Chem. 1998 Jan 1/9/1998; 273(2): 669-72. PMID: 9422713, ISSN: 0021-9258.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9422713.
  • Bae H, Anderson K, Flood LA, Skiba NP, Hamm HE, Graber SG. Molecular determinants of selectivity in 5-hydroxytryptamine1B receptor-G protein interactions. J. Biol. Chem. 1997 Dec 12/19/1997; 272(51): 32071-7. PMID: 9405403, ISSN: 0021-9258.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9405403.
  • Nekrasova ER, Berman DM, Rustandi RR, Hamm HE, Gilman AG, Arshavsky VY. Activation of transducin guanosine triphosphatase by two proteins of the RGS family. Biochemistry. 1997 Jun 6/24/1997; 36(25): 7638-43. PMID: 9201904, PII: bi970427r, DOI: 10.1021/bi970427r, ISSN: 0006-2960.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9201904.
  • Mazzoni MR, Hamm HE. Interaction of transducin with light-activated rhodopsin protects It from proteolytic digestion by trypsin. J. Biol. Chem. 1996 Nov 11/22/1996; 271(47): 30034-40. PMID: 8939950, ISSN: 0021-9258.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8939950.
  • Artemyev NO, Surendran R, Lee JC, Hamm HE. Subunit structure of rod cGMP-phosphodiesterase. J. Biol. Chem. 1996 Oct 10/11/1996; 271(41): 25382-8. PMID: 8810304, ISSN: 0021-9258.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8810304.
  • Hamm HE, Gilchrist A. Heterotrimeric G proteins. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 1996 Apr; 8(2): 189-96. PMID: 8791425, PII: S0955-0674(96)80065-2, ISSN: 0955-0674.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8791425.
  • Lambright DG, Sondek J, Bohm A, Skiba NP, Hamm HE, Sigler PB. The 2.0 A crystal structure of a heterotrimeric G protein. Nature. 1996 Jan 1/25/1996; 379(6563): 311-9. PMID: 8552184, DOI: 10.1038/379311a0, ISSN: 0028-0836.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8552184.
  • Sondek J, Bohm A, Lambright DG, Hamm HE, Sigler PB. Crystal structure of a G-protein beta gamma dimer at 2.1A resolution. Nature. 1996 Jan 1/25/1996; 379(6563): 369-74. PMID: 8552196, DOI: 10.1038/379369a0, ISSN: 0028-0836.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8552196.
  • Suh KH, Hamm HE. Cyclic AMP-dependent phosphoprotein components I and II interact with beta gamma subunits of transducin in frog rod outer segments. Biochemistry. 1996 Jan 1/9/1996; 35(1): 290-8. PMID: 8555187, PII: bi9518656, DOI: 10.1021/bi9518656, ISSN: 0006-2960.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8555187.
  • Martin EL, Rens-Domiano S, Schatz PJ, Hamm HE. Potent peptide analogues of a G protein receptor-binding region obtained with a combinatorial library. J. Biol. Chem. 1996 Jan 1/5/1996; 271(1): 361-6. PMID: 8550587, ISSN: 0021-9258.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8550587.
  • Skiba NP, Bae H, Hamm HE. Mapping of effector binding sites of transducin alpha-subunit using G alpha t/G alpha i1 chimeras. J. Biol. Chem. 1996 Jan 1/5/1996; 271(1): 413-24. PMID: 8550597, ISSN: 0021-9258.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8550597.
  • Artemyev NO, Natochin M, Busman M,Schey KL, Hamm HE. Mechanism of photoreceptor cGMP phosphodiesterase inhibition by its gamma subunits. Biochemistry. 1996; 93((11)): 5407-12.
    Available from: http://www.pnas.org/cgi/reprint/93/11/5407.pdf.
  • Mazzoni MR, Artemyev NO, Hamm HE. Proteolytic fragmentation for epitope mapping. Methods Mol. Biol. 1996; 66: 109-20. PMID: 8959709, DOI: 10.1385/0-89603-375-9:109, ISSN: 1064-3745.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8959709.
  • Rens-Domiano S, Hamm HE. Structural and functional relationships of heterotrimeric G-proteins. FASEB J. 1995 Aug; 9(11): 1059-66. PMID: 7649405, ISSN: 0892-6638.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7649405.
  • Skiba NP, Artemyev NO, Hamm HE. The carboxyl terminus of the gamma-subunit of rod cGMP phosphodiesterase contains distinct sites of interaction with the enzyme catalytic subunits and the alpha-subunit of transducin. J. Biol. Chem. 1995 Jun 6/2/1995; 270(22): 13210-5. PMID: 7768919, ISSN: 0021-9258.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7768919.
  • Slepak, V Z, Artemyev, N O, Zhu, Y, Dumke, C L, Sabacan, L, Sondek, J, Hamm, H E, Bownds, M D, and Arshavsky, V Y. An Effector Site That Stimulates G-protein GTPase in Photoreceptors. J Biol Chem. 1995; 270((24)): 14319-24.
    Available from: http://medschool1.mc.vanderbilt.edu/hammlab/pdf_files/JBiolChem1995Jun16.pdf.
  • Sondek J, Lambright DG, Noel JP, Hamm HE, Sigler PB. GTPase mechanism of Gproteins from the 1.7-A crystal structure of transducin alpha-GDP-AIF-4. Nature. 1994 Nov 11/17/1994; 372(6503): 276-9. PMID: 7969474, DOI: 10.1038/372276a0, ISSN: 0028-0836.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7969474.
  • Artemyev NO, Hamm HE. Probing G-protein function. Nature structural biology. 1994 Nov; 1(11) Sect. 752,4.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7634081.
  • Rasenick MM, Watanabe M, Lazarevic MB, Hatta S, Hamm HE. Synthetic peptides as probes for G protein function. Carboxyl-terminal G alpha s peptides mimic Gs and evoke high affinity agonist binding to beta-adrenergic receptors. J. Biol. Chem. 1994 Aug 8/26/1994; 269(34): 21519-25. PMID: 8063788, ISSN: 0021-9258.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8063788.
  • Arshavsky VY, Dumke CL, Zhu Y, Artemyev NO, Skiba NP, Hamm HE, Bownds MD. Regulation of transducin GTPase activity in bovine rod outer segments. J. Biol. Chem. 1994 Aug 8/5/1994; 269(31): 19882-7. PMID: 8051070, ISSN: 0021-9258.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8051070.
  • Lambright DG, Noel JP, Hamm HE, Sigler PB. Structural determinants for activation of the alpha-subunit of a heterotrimeric G protein. Nature. 1994 Jun 6/23/1994; 369(6482): 621-8. PMID: 8208289, DOI: 10.1038/369621a0, ISSN: 0028-0836.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8208289.
  • Krupnick JG, Gurevich VV, Schepers T, Hamm HE, Benovic JL. Arrestin-rhodopsin interaction. Multi-site binding delineated by peptide inhibition. J. Biol. Chem. 1994 Feb 2/4/1994; 269(5): 3226-32. PMID: 8106358, ISSN: 0021-9258.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8106358.
  • Hamm HE, Rarick HM. Specific peptide probes for G-protein interactions with receptors. Meth. Enzymol. 1994; 237: 423-36. PMID: 7935015, PII: S0076-6879(94)37079-6, ISSN: 0076-6879.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7935015.
  • Rarick HM, Artemyev NO, Mills JS, Skiba NP, Hamm HE. Specific peptide probes for G-protein interaction with effectors. Meth. Enzymol. 1994; 238: 13-28. PMID: 7799779, ISSN: 0076-6879.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7799779.
  • Noel JP, Hamm HE, Sigler PB. The 2.2 A crystal structure of transducin-alpha complexed with GTP gamma S. Nature. 1993 Dec 12/16/1993; 366(6456): 654-63. PMID: 8259210, DOI: 10.1038/366654a0, ISSN: 0028-0836.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8259210.
  • Artemyev NO, Mills JS, Thornburg KR, Knapp DR, Schey KL, Hamm HE. A site on transducin alpha-subunit of interaction with the polycationic region of cGMP phosphodiesterase inhibitory subunit. J. Biol. Chem. 1993 Nov 11/5/1993; 268(31): 23611-5. PMID: 8226888, ISSN: 0021-9258.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8226888.
  • Mazzoni MR, Hamm HE. Tryptophan207 is involved in the GTP-dependent conformational switch in the alpha subunit of the G protein transducin: chymotryptic digestion patterns of the GTP gamma S and GDP-bound forms. J. Protein Chem. 1993 Apr; 12(2): 215-21. PMID: 8489707, ISSN: 0277-8033.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8489707.
  • Hargrave PA, Hamm HE, Hofmann KP. Interaction of rhodopsin with the G-protein, transducin. Bioessays. 1993 Jan; 15(1): 43-50. PMID: 8466475, DOI: 10.1002/bies.950150107, ISSN: 0265-9247.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8466475.
  • Dratz, EA, Furstenau, JE, Lambert, CG, Thireault, DL, Rarick, HR, Schepers, T, Pakhlevaniants, S., and H.E. Hamm. NMR structure of a receptor bound G protein peptide. Nature. 1993; 363((6426)): 276-81.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8487866.
  • Artemyev NO, Rarick HM, Mills JS, Skiba NP, Hamm HE. Sites of interaction between rod G-protein alpha-subunit and cGMP-phosphodiesterase gamma-subunit. Implications for the phosphodiesterase activation mechanism. J. Biol. Chem. 1992 Dec 12/15/1992; 267(35): 25067-72. PMID: 1334079, ISSN: 0021-9258.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1334079.
  • Stieve H, Niemeyer B, Aktories K, Hamm HE. Disturbing GTP-binding protein function through microinjection into the visual cell of Limulus. Z. Naturforsch., C, J. Biosci. 1992 Nov; 47(11-12): 915-21. PMID: 1285831, ISSN: 0939-5075.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1285831.
  • Artemyev, N O, Hamm, H E. Two-site high-affinity interaction between inhibitory and catalytic subunits of rod cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase. Biochem J. 1992; 283((Pt 1)): 273-9.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1314566.
  • Mangels, L A, Neubig, R R, Hamm, H E, Gnegy, M E. Calmodulin binding distinguishes between betagamma subunits of activated G proteins and transducin. Biochem J. 1992; 283((Pt 3)): 683-90.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1590758?dopt=Abstract.
  • Rarick HM, Artemyev NO, Hamm HE. A site on rod G protein alpha subunit that mediates effector activation. Science. 1992; 256((5059)): 1031-3.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1317058.
  • Hamm HE. Molecular interactions between the photoreceptor G protein and rhodopsin. Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. 1991 Dec; 11(6): 563-78. PMID: 1782650, ISSN: 0272-4340.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1782650.
  • Mazzoni MR, Malinski JA, Hamm HE. Structural analysis of rod GTP-binding protein, Gt. Limited proteolytic digestion pattern of Gt with four proteases defines monoclonal antibody epitope. J. Biol. Chem. 1991 Jul 7/25/1991; 266(21): 14072-81. PMID: 1713215, ISSN: 0021-9258.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1713215.
  • Warpeha, K M, Hamm, H E, Rasenick, M M, Kaufman, L S. A blue-light-activated GTP-binding protein in the plasma membranes of etiolated peas. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1991; 88: 8925-9.
    Available from: http://www.pnas.org/content/88/20/8925.full.pdf.
  • Hamm HE, Rarick H, Mazzoni M, Malinski J, Suh KH. The molecular basis of GTP-binding protein interaction with receptors. Biochem. Soc. Symp. 1990; 56: 35-44. PMID: 2256961, ISSN: 0067-8694.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2256961.
  • Hamm HE. Surfaces of interaction between Gt and rhodopsin in the GDP-bound and empty-pocket configurations. Adv. Second Messenger Phosphoprotein Res. 1990; 24: 76-82. PMID: 2119661, ISSN: 1040-7952.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2119661.
  • Robinson, P R, Wood, S F, Szuts, E Z, Fein, A, Hamm, H E, Lisman, J E. Light-dependent GTP-binding proteins in squid photoreceptors. Biochem j. 1990; 272((1)): 79-85.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/pubmed.
  • Mazzoni MR, Hamm HE. Effect of monoclonal antibody binding on alpha-beta gamma subunit interactions in the rod outer segment G protein, Gt. Biochemistry. 1989 Dec 12/12/1989; 28(25): 9873-80. PMID: 2482080, ISSN: 0006-2960.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2482080.
  • Hamm HE, Deretic D, Mazzoni MR, Moore CA, Takahashi JS, Rasenick MM. A monoclonal antibody against the rod outer segment guanyl nucleotide-binding protein, transducin, blocks the stimulatory and inhibitory G proteins of adenylate cyclase. J. Biol. Chem. 1989 Jul 7/5/1989; 264(19): 11475-82. PMID: 2544596, ISSN: 0021-9258.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2544596.
  • Pepe IM, Panfoli I, Hamm HE. Visual transduction in vertebrate photoreceptors. Light activation of guanylate cyclase. Cell Biophys. 1989 Apr; 14(2): 129-37. PMID: 2472205, DOI: 10.1007/BF02797130, ISSN: 0163-4992.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2472205.
  • Hamm HE, Deretic D, Arendt A, Hargrave PA, Koenig B, Hofmann KP. Site of G protein binding to rhodopsin mapped with synthetic peptides from the alpha subunit. Science. 1988 Aug 8/12/1988; 241(4867): 832-5. PMID: 3136547, ISSN: 0036-8075.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3136547.
  • Yatani A, Hamm H, Codina J, Mazzoni MR, Birnbaumer L, Brown AM. A monoclonal antibody to the alpha subunit of Gk blocks muscarinic activation of atrial K+ channels. Science. 1988 Aug 8/12/1988; 241(4867): 828-31. PMID: 2457252, ISSN: 0036-8075.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2457252.
  • Deretic D, Hamm HE. Topographic analysis of antigenic determinants recognized by monoclonal antibodies to the photoreceptor guanyl nucleotide-binding protein, transducin. J. Biol. Chem. 1987 Aug 8/5/1987; 262(22): 10839-47. PMID: 2440876, ISSN: 0021-9258.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2440876.
  • Hamm HE, Deretic D, Hofmann KP, Schleicher A, Kohl B. Mechanism of action of monoclonal antibodies that block the light activation of the guanyl nucleotide-binding protein, transducin. J. Biol. Chem. 1987 Aug 8/5/1987; 262(22): 10831-8. PMID: 2440875, ISSN: 0021-9258.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2440875.
  • Hamm HE, Bownds MD. Protein complement of rod outer segments of frog retina. Biochemistry. 1986 Aug 8/12/1986; 25(16): 4512-23. PMID: 3021191, ISSN: 0006-2960.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3021191.
  • Hamm, H E, Bownds, M D. A monoclonal antibody to guanine nucleotide binding protein inhibits the light-activated cyclic GMP pathway in frog rod outer segments. J Gen Physiol. 1984; 84((2)): 265-80.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6092516?dopt=Abstract.
  • Witt, P L, Hamm, H E, Bownds, M D. Preparation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to several frog rod outer segment proteins. J Gen Physiol. 1984; 84((2)): 251-63.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6387041?dopt=Abstract.
  • Hamm HE, Takahashi JS, Menaker M. Light-induced decrease of serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity and melatonin in the chicken pineal gland and retina. Brain Res. 1983 May 5/5/1983; 266(2): 287-93. PMID: 6871664, PII: 0006-8993(83)90660-1, ISSN: 0006-8993.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6871664.
  • Hermolin, J, Karell, M A, Hamm, H E, Bownds, M D. Calcium and cyclic GMP regulation of light-sensitive protein phosphorylation in frog photoreceptor membranes. J Gen Physiol. 1982; 79((4)): 633-55.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6279759?dopt=Abstract.
  • Hamm HE, Menaker M. Pineal and retinal serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity: modulation by phosphate. J. Neurochem. 1981 Dec; 37(6): 1567-72. PMID: 7334376, ISSN: 0022-3042.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7334376.
  • Hamm, H E, Menaker, M. Retinal rhythms in chicks: circadian variation in melantonin and serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1980; 77((8)): 4998-5002.
    Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6933543?dopt=Abstract.