Glossary of Sarcoma Terms
chemotherapy, radiation therapy or hormone therapy used to kill remaining cancer cells left behind after surgery.
a non-cancerous tumor. These tumors do not invade nearby tissue or spread to other parts of the body. Benign tumors usually can be removed and are seldom a threat to life.
a surgical procedure in which a piece of tissues removed by a needle or an incision and sent to pathology to determine if it is benign or malignant (see malignant).
drugs that fight cancer; treatment of illness by chemical means.
a nurse trained to administer chemotherapy.
a cancer that forms cartilage.
a benign bone tumor of cartilage inside the bone.
a bone cancer that affects young individuals; most often treated with chemotherapy and surgery.
a form of bone cancer (occasionally soft tissue sarcoma) that occurs mainly in middle-aged and elderly people.
low, intermediate, or high designations indicating aggressivess in cancer.
limb salvage surgery (LSS)
surgery done to remove a tumor while saving the extremity, thus avoiding an amputation.
a fatty, soft tissue sarcoma.
cancer affecting only the cells of a certain area.
indicates that cancer cells are present and may spread to other parts of the body.
malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH)
the most common soft tissue sarcoma.
the rare occasion when a benign tumor changes into its malignant counterpart, for example a lipoma into a liposarcoma.
the periphery or edges of the surgical resection around the tumor. Clear margins imply the tumor has been completely removed.
physician who specializes in chemotherapy for cancer.
metabolic bone disease
not a neoplasm but a bone disease that weakens the skeleton. Examples are: osteoporosis, Paget's disease, rickets, renal osteodystrophy, osteogenesis imperfecta, and osteomalacia.
the spread of cancer from one area of the body to another. For example: bone cancer may spread to the lungs.
chemotherapy given before surgery or radiotherapy.
a physician who specializes in cancer.
a bone infection.
decreased bone density. Not a tumor. "Weak bones".
the most common cancer of the bone that occurs in children.Also called osteogenic sarcoma.
a break in a bone caused by growth of a benign or malignant tumor. The tumor growth weakens the bone sufficiently for it to break.
a doctor who identifies diseases(such as cancer) by studying cells under a microscope.
the expected outcome of a disease and chances for recovery.
an artificial replacement for a body part.
a physician who specializes in radiation treatments for cancer.
radiation therapy (radiotherapy)
therapy that uses high energy rays or radioactive materials to damage cancer cells, making it more difficult for them to grow in number.Side effects are "sunburned" skin, stiffness and swelling.
the development of cancerous cells in the same area or another area of the body after cancer treatment.
the most common soft tissue sarcoma of children, occurring in the muscle.
a type of cancer that starts in bone or connective tissue.
a cancer originating in bone.
soft tissue sarcoma
a sarcoma that begins in the muscle, fat, fibrous tissue, blood vessels, or other supporting tissues of the body. Not a type of bone cancer.
stages of cancer
the progression of cancer from mild to severe. Usually indicates if it has spread to deeper tissues or other parts of the body. One method used by doctors to stage different types of cancer is the TNM classification system. In this system, doctors determine the presence and size of the tumor(T), how many(if any) lymph nodes are involved(N) and whether or not the cancer has metastasized(M). A number (usually 0-4) is assigned to each of the three categories to indicate its severity.
the process of learning about the extent of the tumor and whether the disease has spread from its original site to other parts of the body.
high-energy radiation. Used in low doses to diagnose diseases and in high doses to treat cancer.