A Study to Compare Treatment with the Drug Selumetinib Alone versus Selumetinib and Vinblastine in Patients with Recurrent or Progressive Low-Grade Glioma
This phase III trial investigates the best dose of vinblastine in combination with selumetinib and the benefit of adding vinblastine to selumetinib compared to selumetinib alone in treating children and young adults with low-grade glioma (a common type of brain cancer) that has come back after prior treatment (recurrent) or does not respond to therapy (progressive). Selumetinib is a drug that works by blocking a protein that lets tumor cells grow without stopping. Vinblastine blocks cell growth by stopping cell division and may kill cancer cells. Giving selumetinib in combination with vinblastine may work better than selumetinib alone in treating recurrent or progressive low-grade glioma.
Multiple Cancer Types
This phase II trial studies the best approach to combine chemotherapy and radiation therapy (RT) based on the patients response to induction chemotherapy in patients with non-germinomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCT) that have not spread to other parts of the brain or body (localized). This study has 2 goals: 1) optimizing radiation for patients who respond well to induction chemotherapy to diminish spinal cord relapses, 2) utilizing higher dose chemotherapy followed by conventional RT in patients who did not respond to induction chemotherapy. Chemotherapy drugs, such as carboplatin, etoposide, ifosfamide, and thiotepa, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells, by stopping them from dividing, or by stopping them from spreading. Radiation therapy uses high energy x-rays or high-energy protons to kill tumor cells and shrink tumors. Studies have shown that patients with newly-diagnosed localized NGGCT, whose disease responds well to chemotherapy before receiving radiation therapy, are more likely to be free of the disease for a longer time than are patients for whom the chemotherapy does not efficiently eliminate or reduce the size of the tumor. The purpose of this study is to see how well the tumors respond to induction chemotherapy to decide what treatment to give next. Some patients will be given RT to the spine and a portion of the brain. Others will be given high dose chemotherapy and a stem cell transplant before RT to the whole brain and spine. Giving treatment based on the response to induction chemotherapy may lower the side effects of radiation in some patients and adjust the therapy to a more efficient one for other patients with localized NGGCT.
Germ Cell (Pediatrics), Pediatrics
Comparing an Alternative Surgical Procedure, Sentinel Lymph Node (SLN) Biopsy, with Standard Neck Dissection for Patients with Early-Stage Oral Cavity Cancer
This phase II / III trial studies how well sentinel lymph node biopsy works and compares sentinel lymph node biopsy surgery to standard neck dissection as part of the treatment for early-stage oral cavity cancer. Sentinel lymph node biopsy surgery is a procedure that removes a smaller number of lymph nodes from your neck because it uses an imaging agent to see which lymph nodes are most likely to have cancer. Standard neck dissection, such as elective neck dissection, removes many of the lymph nodes in your neck. Using sentinel lymph node biopsy surgery may work better in treating patients with early-stage oral cavity cancer compared to standard elective neck dissection.
Testing the Addition of the Immunotherapy Drug Pembrolizumab to the Usual Chemotherapy Treatment (Paclitaxel and Carboplatin) in Stage III-IV or Recurrent Endometrial Cancer
This phase III trial studies how well the combination of pembrolizumab, paclitaxel and carboplatin works compared with paclitaxel and carboplatin alone in treating patients with endometrial cancer that is stage III or IV, or has come back (recurrent). Immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies, such as pembrolizumab, may help the bodys immune system attack the cancer, and may interfere with the ability of tumor cells to grow and spread. Paclitaxel and carboplatin are chemotherapy drugs used as part of the usual treatment approach for this type of cancer. This study aims to assess if adding immunotherapy to these drugs is better or worse than the usual approach for treatment of this cancer.
Testing the Anti-cancer Drug, Rogaratinib (BAY 1163877), for Treatment of Advanced Sarcoma with Alteration in Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor (FGFR 1-4), and in Patients with SDH-deficient Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST)
Multiple Cancer Types
This phase II trial studies the effect of rogaratinib in treating patients with sarcoma with a change in a group of proteins called fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) or SDH-deficient gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Rogaratinib may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth.
Comparing the Outcome of Standard Systemic Therapy Only versus Standard Systemic therapy with either Surgery or Radiation Therapy, for Patients with Advanced Prostate cancer
This phase III trial compare the effects of adding definitive treatment (either radiation therapy or prostate removal surgery) to standard systemic therapy in treating patients with prostate cancer that has spread to other places in the body (advanced). Removing the prostate by either surgery or radiation therapy in addition to standard systemic therapy for prostate cancer may lower the chance of the cancer growing or spreading.
The purpose of this study is to compare the two approaches for monitoring pancreatic cysts. The study doctors want to compare more frequent monitoring vs less frequent monitoring in order to learn which monitoring method leads to better outcome for patients with pancreatic cysts.
Comparison of Chemotherapy before and after Surgery versus after Surgery Alone for the Treatment of Gallbladder Cancer, OPT-IN Trial
This phase II / III trial compares the effect of adding chemotherapy before and after surgery versus after surgery alone (usual treatment) in treating patients with stage II-III gallbladder cancer. Chemotherapy drugs, such as gemcitabine and cisplatin, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells, by stopping them from dividing, or by stopping them from spreading. Giving chemotherapy before surgery may make the tumor smaller; therefore, may reduce the extent of surgery. Additionally, it may make it easier for the surgeon to distinguish between normal and cancerous tissue. Giving chemotherapy after surgery may kill any remaining tumor cells. This study will determine whether giving chemotherapy before surgery increases the length of time before the cancer may return and whether it will increase a patients life span compared to the usual approach.
Response and Biology-Based Risk Factor-Guided Therapy in Treating Younger Patients with Non-high Risk Neuroblastoma
This phase III trial studies how well response and biology-based risk factor-guided therapy works in treating younger patients with non-high risk neuroblastoma. Sometimes a tumor may not need treatment until it progresses. In this case, observation may be sufficient. Measuring biomarkers in tumor cells may help plan when effective treatment is necessary and what the best treatment is. Response and biology-based risk factor-guided therapy may be effective in treating patients with non-high risk neuroblastoma and may help to avoid some of the risks and side effects related to standard treatment.
HLA-Mismatched Unrelated Donor Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation With Post-Transplantation Cyclophosphamide
Multiple Cancer Types
This is a prospective, multi-center, Phase II study of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) using human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatched unrelated donors (MMUD) for peripheral blood stem cell transplant in adults and bone marrow stem cell transplant in children. Post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy), tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) will be used for for graft versus host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. This trial will study how well this treatment works in patients with hematologic malignancies.
Hematologic, Leukemia, Lymphoma, Myelodysplastic Syndrome